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Articles by A. G Redfield
Total Records ( 2 ) for A. G Redfield
  X Shi , C Shao , X Zhang , C Zambonelli , A. G Redfield , J. F Head , B. A Seaton and M. F. Roberts

Cleavage of phosphatidylinositol (PI) to inositol 1,2-(cyclic)-phosphate (cIP) and cIP hydrolysis to inositol 1-phosphate by Bacillus thuringiensis phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C are activated by the enzyme binding to phosphatidylcholine (PC) surfaces. Part of this reflects improved binding of the protein to interfaces. However, crystallographic analysis of an interfacially impaired phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase (W47A/W242A) suggested protein dimerization might occur on the membrane. In the W47A/W242A dimer, four tyrosine residues from one monomer interact with the same tyrosine cluster of the other, forming a tight dimer interface close to the membrane binding regions. We have constructed mutant proteins in which two or more of these tyrosine residues have been replaced with serine. Phospholipid binding and enzymatic activity of these mutants have been examined to assess the importance of these residues to enzyme function. Replacing two tyrosines had small effects on enzyme activity. However, removal of three or four tyrosine residues weakened PC binding and reduced PI cleavage by the enzyme as well as PC activation of cIP hydrolysis. Crystal structures of Y247S/Y251S in the absence and presence of myo-inositol as well as Y246S/Y247S/Y248S/Y251S indicate that both mutant proteins crystallized as monomers, were very similar to one another, and had no change in the active site region. Kinetic assays, lipid binding, and structural results indicate that either (i) a specific PC binding site, critical for vesicle activities and cIP activation, has been impaired, or (ii) the reduced dimerization potential for Y246S/Y247S/Y248S and Y246S/Y247S/Y248S/Y251S is responsible for their reduced catalytic activity in all assay systems.

  M Pu , X Fang , A. G Redfield , A Gershenson and M. F. Roberts

The enzymatic activity of the peripheral membrane protein, phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC), is increased by nonsubstrate phospholipids with the extent of enhancement tuned by the membrane lipid composition. For Bacillus thuringiensis PI-PLC, a small amount of phosphatidylcholine (PC) activates the enzyme toward its substrate PI; above 0.5 mol fraction PC (XPC), enzyme activity decreases substantially. To provide a molecular basis for this PC-dependent behavior, we used fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to explore enzyme binding to multicomponent lipid vesicles composed of PC and anionic phospholipids (that bind to the active site as substrate analogues) and high resolution field cycling 31P NMR methods to estimate internal correlation times (c) of phospholipid headgroup motions. PI-PLC binds poorly to pure anionic phospholipid vesicles, but 0.1 XPC significantly enhances binding, increases PI-PLC activity, and slows nanosecond rotational/wobbling motions of both phospholipid headgroups, as indicated by increased c. PI-PLC activity and phospholipid c are constant between 0.1 and 0.5 XPC. Above this PC content, PI-PLC has little additional effect on the substrate analogue but further slows the PC c, a motional change that correlates with the onset of reduced enzyme activity. For PC-rich bilayers, these changes, together with the reduced order parameter and enhanced lateral diffusion of the substrate analogue in the presence of PI-PLC, imply that at high XPC, kinetic inhibition of PI-PLC results from intravesicle sequestration of the enzyme from the bulk of the substrate. Both methodologies provide a detailed view of protein-lipid interactions and can be readily adapted for other peripheral membrane proteins.

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