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Articles by A. F. Chen
Total Records ( 5 ) for A. F. Chen
  L Tie , X. J Li , X Wang , K. M Channon and A. F. Chen

Refractory wound is a severe complication that leads to limb amputation in diabetes. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) plays a key role in normal wound repair but is uncoupled in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes because of reduced cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). We tested the hypothesis that overexpression of GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH I), the rate-limiting enzyme for de novo BH4 synthesis, retards NOS uncoupling and accelerates wound healing in STZ mice. Blood glucose levels were significantly increased in both male endothelium-specific GTPCH I transgenic mice (Tg-GCH; via a tie-2 promoter) and wild-type (WT) littermates 5 days after STZ regimen. A full-thickness excisional wound was created on mouse dorsal skin by a 4-mm punch biopsy. Wound closure was delayed in STZ mice, which was rescued in STZ Tg-GCH mice. Cutaneous BH4 level was significantly reduced in STZ mice vs. WT mice, which was maintained in STZ Tg-GCH mice. In STZ mice, constitutive NOS (cNOS) activity and nitrite levels were decreased compared with WT mice, paralleled by increased superoxide anion (O2) level and inducible NOS (iNOS) activity. In STZ Tg-GCH mice, nitrite level and cNOS activity were potentiated and O2 level and iNOS activity were suppressed compared with STZ mice. Thus endothelium-specific BH4 overexpression accelerates wound healing in type 1 diabetic mice by enhancing cNOS activity and suppressing oxidative stress.

  J. D Luo , T. P Hu , L Wang , M. S Chen , S. M Liu and A. F. Chen

Sonic hedgehog (SHH) plays an important role in postnatal tissue repair. The present study tested the hypothesis that impaired SHH pathway results in delayed wound healing by suppressing cutaneous nitric oxide (NO) function in type 1 diabetes. Adult male C57/B6 mice and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic mice were used. Although cutaneous SHH and Patched-1 (Ptc-1 encoded by PTCH, PTCH 1) proteins were increased significantly on day 4 after wounding compared with day 0 in normal mice, both were decreased significantly in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Topical application of SHH restored wound healing delay in STZ-induced diabetic mice, with a concomitant augmentation of both cutaneous constitutive nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and nitrite level. The effects of SHH on wound healing and cutaneous NO function were markedly inhibited by SHH receptor inhibitor cyclopamine. After 24-h treatment in vitro, SHH (5–20 µg/ml) significantly increased cutaneous endothelial NOS protein expression, NOS activity and NO level in normal mice and STZ-induced diabetic mice in a concentration-dependent manner, an effect that was blunted by cyclopamine and NOS inhibitor N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY-294002 significantly blunted the increase of NOS activity and NO level induced by SHH treatment in human umbilican vein endothelial cells. These results demonstrate that the SHH pathway is activated in a normal wound, and its reduction results in impaired NO function and wound healing in diabetes. Strategies aimed at augmenting the endogenous SHH pathway may provide an effective means in ameliorating delayed diabetic wound healing.

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