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Articles by A. F Subar
Total Records ( 3 ) for A. F Subar
  N Tasevska , R Sinha , V Kipnis , A. F Subar and A. J Cross
 

Background: Red and processed meat consumption may play a role in lung cancer pathogenesis because of these meats' fat and carcinogen content.

Objective: We prospectively investigated whether meat type, cooking method, doneness level, and intake of specific meat mutagens and heme iron are associated with lung carcinoma.

Design: Men (n = 278,380) and women (n = 189,596) from the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study with no history of cancer at baseline were monitored for 8 y. Diet was assessed with a 124-item food-frequency questionnaire. A meat-cooking module was used to estimate the intake of individual heterocyclic amines, benzo(a)pyrene, and heme iron. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs.

Results: In a comparison of quintiles 5 with 1 (Q5vsQ1), a high intake of red meat was associated with an increased risk of lung carcinoma in both men (HRQ5vsQ1: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.38; P for trend = 0.005) and women (HRQ5vsQ1: 1.13; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.32; P for trend = 0.05). A high intake of processed meat increased the risk only in men (HRQ5vsQ1: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.37; P for trend = 0.003). In an analysis stratified by smoking status, we observed a tendency for an increased risk with red meat intake in never smoking men and women; however, the risks were not statistically significant. In a comparison of tertiles 3 and 1 (T3vsT1), the risk of lung carcinoma was associated with intake of well-/very-well-done meat (HRT3vsT1: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.35; P for trend = 0.002) and the intake of 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (HRQ5vsQ1: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.38; P for trend = 0.04) in men. Heme iron intake increased the risk of lung carcinoma in both men (HRQ5vsQ1: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.45; P for trend = 0.02) and women (HRQ5vsQ1: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.42; P for trend = 0.002).

Conclusion: We observed a moderate association between meat consumption and lung carcinoma, which might be explained by heme iron intake, high-temperature cooking, and associated mutagens.

  T. K Lam , M Rotunno , J. H Lubin , S Wacholder , D Consonni , A. C Pesatori , P. A Bertazzi , S. J Chanock , L Burdette , A. M Goldstein , M. A Tucker , N. E Caporaso , A. F Subar and M. T. Landi
 

Epidemiological and mechanistic evidence on the association of quercetin-rich food intake with lung cancer risk and carcinogenesis are inconclusive. We investigated the role of dietary quercetin and the interaction between quercetin and P450 and glutathione S-transferase (GST) polymorphisms on lung cancer risk in 1822 incident lung cancer cases and 1991 frequency-matched controls from the Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology study. In non-tumor lung tissue from 38 adenocarcinoma patients, we assessed the correlation between quercetin intake and messenger RNA expression of the same P450 and GST metabolic genes. Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for sex-specific quintiles of intake were calculated using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for putative risk factors. Frequent intake of quercetin-rich foods was inversely associated with lung cancer risk (OR = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.37–0.67; P-trend < 0.001) and did not differ by P450 or GST genotypes, gender or histological subtypes. The association was stronger in subjects who smoked >20 cigarettes per day (OR = 0.35; 95% CI: 0.19–0.66; P-trend = 0.003). Based on a two-sample t-test, we compared gene expression and high versus low consumption of quercetin-rich foods and observed an overall upregulation of GSTM1, GSTM2, GSTT2, and GSTP1 as well as a downregulation of specific P450 genes (P-values < 0.05, adjusted for age and smoking status). In conclusion, we observed an inverse association of quercetin-rich food with lung cancer risk and identified a possible mechanism of quercetin-related changes in the expression of genes involved in the metabolism of tobacco carcinogens in humans. Our findings suggest an interplay between quercetin intake, tobacco smoking, and lung cancer risk. Further research on this relationship is warranted.

  A. C. M Thiebaut , L Jiao , D. T Silverman , A. J Cross , F. E Thompson , A. F Subar , A. R Hollenbeck , A Schatzkin and R. Z. Stolzenberg Solomon
  Background

Previous research relating dietary fat, a modifiable risk factor, to pancreatic cancer has been inconclusive.

Methods

We prospectively analyzed the association between intakes of fat, fat subtypes, and fat food sources and exocrine pancreatic cancer in the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study, a US cohort of 308 736 men and 216 737 women who completed a 124-item food frequency questionnaire in 1995–1996. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models, with adjustment for energy intake, smoking history, body mass index, and diabetes. Statistical tests were two-sided.

Results

Over an average follow-up of 6.3 years, 865 men and 472 women were diagnosed with exocrine pancreatic cancer (45.0 and 34.5 cases per 100 000 person-years, respectively). After multivariable adjustment and combination of data for men and women, pancreatic cancer risk was directly related to the intakes of total fat (highest vs lowest quintile, 46.8 vs 33.2 cases per 100 000 person-years, HR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.46; Ptrend = .03), saturated fat (51.5 vs 33.1 cases per 100 000 person-years, HR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.14 to 1.62; Ptrend < .001), and monounsaturated fat (46.2 vs 32.9 cases per 100 000 person-years, HR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.46; Ptrend = .05) but not polyunsaturated fat. The associations were strongest for saturated fat from animal food sources (52.0 vs 32.2 cases per 100 000 person-years, HR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.20 to 1.70; Ptrend < .001); specifically, intakes from red meat and dairy products were both statistically significantly associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk (HR = 1.27 and 1.19, respectively).

Conclusion

In this large prospective cohort with a wide range of intakes, dietary fat of animal origin was associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk.

 
 
 
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