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Articles by A. E. Ghaly
Total Records ( 15 ) for A. E. Ghaly
  A. E. Ghaly and H. A. Farag
  The application of phytoremediation for purification of an anaerobically treated dairy manure and production of forage crops was investigated. Four crops (two cereals and two grasses) were examined for their ability to grow hydroponically and to remove pollutants (nutrients) from dairy wastewater. The preliminary experiments showed that timothygrass and orchardgrass did not perform well as aquatic plants. Only 24 and 29% of the seeds germinated after 19-21 days giving a crop yield of 21 and 19 t haˉ1 for timotygrass and orchardgrass, respectively. Wheat and barley grow very well as aquatic plants with a seed germination of 83 and 73 (in 7 days) and a crop yield of 106 and 86 t haˉ1 for wheat and barley, respectively. The effect of light duration, seeding rate, wastewater application rate and fungicidal treatment on the wheat crop yield and pollution potential reduction were studied. The results indicated that with this system, a wheat forage crop could be produced in 21 days from germination to harvest. A treatment combination of wastewater application rate of 900 mL dayˉ1, a seeding rate of 400 g and a light duration of 12 hrs gave the best results for crop yield (3.81 kg of wheat trayˉ1). Based on thirteen harvests per year, a total possible yield of 3300 t haˉ1 per year can be achieved with the system. This is more than 102 times grater than the yield obtainable from a filed grown conventional forage of 245 t haˉ1 per year. Wheat had a superior nutritional value (higher digestible energy, higher carbohydrates, fat, protein and mineral contents and less crude fiber) compared to the other field forage crops. It also contained higher macro and micro nutrients (Sodium, Magnesium, Manganese, Iron, Copper, Boron, Selenium, Iodine and Cobalt) than field forage crops. Removal efficiencies of 72.4, 88.6 and 60.8 % can be achieved for the total solids, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and ammonium nitrogen, respectively. A nitrate nitrogen concentration of 7.1 mg Lˉ1 was also found in the effluent from the hydroponic system. This is below the Canadian Environmental and Health Guidelines of 10 mg Lˉ1.
  A. E. Ghaly , H. A. Farag and M. Verma
  A hydroponic system was developed and used for purification of an anaerobically treated dairy manure and production of forage crops. The effect of light duration, seeding rate and wastewater application rate on the crop yield and pollution potential reduction were studied. The results indicated that a wheat forage crop can be produced in 21 days from germination to harvest in this system and removal efficiencies of up to 89.9, 94.6, and 86.7 % can be achieved for the total solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium nitrogen, respectively. Increasing the wastewater application rate increased the crop yield and decreased the pollutants removal efficiencies. A treatment combination of wastewater application rate of 900 mL/day, a seeding rate of 400 g and a light duration of 12 hours gave the best results for crop yield (3.65 kg of wheat/tray). A total possible yield of 3160 tonnes per hectare per year can be achieved with the system (with thirteen harvests per year). This is more than 98 times greater than the yield obtainable from a field grown conventional forage of 245 tonnes per hectare per year. At the optimum forage production, removal efficiencies of 75.7, 85.9 and 75.6% were achieved for the solids, COD, ammonium nitrogen, respectively. A nitrate nitrogen concentration of 6.7 mg/L was found in the effluent from the hydroponic system. This is below the Canadian Environmental and Health Guidelines of 10 mg/L.
  A. M. Snow , A. E. Ghaly and A. Snow
  Hydroponically grown wheat, barley and oats were examined for their ability to remove nutrients from aquaculture wastewater. Wheat, barley and oats seeds were germinated in water in a hydroponics system. The seedlings then received wastewater from an aquaculture system stocked with Arctic charr. During the experiment, the crops grew rapidly and fairly uniformly and showed no signs of mineral deficiency although fungal growth was evident. The average crop heights and yields at harvest were 19.0, 25.5 and 25.2 cm and 64, 59 and 42 t ha¯1 for wheat, barley and oats, respectively. The hydroponically grown wheat, barley and oats were able to significantly reduce the pollution load of the aquaculture wastewater. The TS, COD, NH4+-N, NO-N, NO-N and PO4-P reductions ranged from 53.3 to 57.7%, from 55.7 to 78.7%, from 76.0 to 80.0% from 85.1 to 92.9%, from 62.1 to 79.3% and from 74.1 to 93.0%, respectively. The compartments containing barley produced the highest quality effluent, which was suitable for reuse in aquaculture operations. The average TS, COD, NH4+-N, NO-N, NO-N and PO4-P concentrations and pH of the final effluent from the compartments containing barley were 442, 64, 0.50, 0.02, 5.89 and 0.61 mg L¯1 and 6.65, respectively. The nutritive value of the three wastewater grown crops was assessed to determine the suitability of using the plants as a component in fish feed. The three terrestrial crops meet the energy, fat, Ca, Mg, P, Na, S and Mn dietary requirements of aquatic animals, exceed the carbohydrate, crude fiber, Cl, K, Cu, Fe, Se and Zn requirements of fish and shellfish and do not contain sufficient amounts of protein to meet the dietary requirements of fish and shellfish. The crops will require supplementation with a high protein source that contains low concentrations of carbohydrates, crude fiber, Cl, K, Cu, Fe, Se and Zn. Common protein sources that could be used for supplementation included fishmeal, bone meal and blood meal.
  A. Snow , A. E. Ghaly , R. Cote and A.M. Snow
  A surface flow wetland was constructed in the Burnside Industrial Park, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, to treat stormwater runoff from the surrounding watersheds which are comprised primarily of commercial properties and two former landfills. The objectives of this study were: (a) to compare the uptake of iron by red maple, white birch and red spruce trees growing under flooded soil conditions in the constructed wetland and well drained soil conditions in a nearby reference site, (b) to evaluate the seasonal variability of iron in these trees and (c) to determine the distribution of iron in different compartments of these trees (leaves, twigs, branches, trunk wood, trunk bark and roots). The average iron concentrations in the aboveground compartments of red maple, white birch and red spruce trees were within the range of iron concentrations reported in the literature for these trees. Red maple, white birch and red spruce trees in the constructed wetland had significantly greater iron concentrations in their roots than the same species in the reference site. The average iron concentrations in the leaves of red maple trees in the constructed wetland and the reference site displayed an increasing trend towards the end of the growing season while the average iron concentrations in the twigs of red maple and white birch trees in the constructed wetland and the reference site displayed maximum concentrations at the beginning of the growing season. Red maple, white birch and red spruce trees in the constructed wetland retained a major portion of their overall iron concentration in their root systems.
  A. S. Mahmoud , M. S. Brooks and A. E. Ghaly
  Advanced photo oxidation processes hold great promise for the improved treatment of textile dye effluent. In this study, the effectiveness of a H2O2/UV system for the decolorization of remazol brilliant blue effluent was investigated by examining the optimum conditions for dye removal in two reactors (coil and conventional). The results showed that the coil reactor had a higher temperature profile than the conventional reactor. When the dye was fed into the reactors at 25˚C, UV radiation alone was not effective as the decolorization efficiency of the conventional reactor varied from 0.0 to 12.3%, while that of the coil reactor varied from 0.0 to 7.3%, depending on the residence time used. The effect of UV radiation at 100˚C was also negligible as the maximum decolorization efficiencies were 4.0 and 3.7% for the conventional and the coil reactors, respectively. Increasing the concentration of H2O2 increased decolorization efficiencies of both UV reactors. Dye decolorization also increased with residence time. More than 93% color removal of remazol brilliant blue dye was achieved with a residence time of 56 min and 100% decolorization achieved in 65 min using a H2O2 concentration of 12.50 mL Lˉ1.
  A. E. Ghaly , A. Snow and M. Kamal
  The effect of initial concentrations of manganese on the overall removal efficiency of Mn by wool grass, soft rush, broad leaved cattail and soft stem bulrush plants was investigated under laboratory conditions. The translocation of Mn in the roots, stems, leaves and flowers of each plant species was determined and the fraction of Mn removed by precipitation was calculated. The overall manganese removal efficiencies of the system during the first period were 97.66, 94.09, 98.51 and 98.44 %, 90.94, 95.47, 96.83 and 85.51 % and 92.65, 75.55, 97.56 and 75.55 % which decreased to 82.22, 89.94, 95.26 and 95.85 %, 87.78, 91.85, 90.49 and 84.16 % and 38.88, 61.61, 31.54 and 71.64 % by the end (after 72 days) of the experiment for soft stem bulrush, wool grass, soft rush and cattail in the compartments receiving tolerance concentration, landfill leachate and the control, respectively. The removal of manganese was a function of the initial Mn concentration and the higher the initial concentration the higher the removal efficiency. The results showed the addition of manganese (from wastewater) to the soil by precipitation at average rates of 2.17 and 17.19 mg/kg/day, 2.11 and 15.75 mg/kg/day, 1.71 and 15.86 mg/kg/day and 1.17 and 15.29 mg/kg/day for soft stem bulrush, wool grass, soft rush and cattail in the compartments receiving landfill leachate and tolerance concentration, respectively. The leaves of wool grass, soft rush and cattail accumulated significantly greater concentrations of manganese than the roots with translocation factors > 1 indicating high translocation of Mn from root to shoot for the control, landfill leachate and tolerance concentration, respectively.
  A. M. Snow and A. E. Ghaly
  Water hyacinth, water lettuce and parrot’s feather plants were examined for their ability to remove nutrients from aquaculture wastewater at two retention times. During the experiment, the aquatic plants grew rapidly and appeared healthy with green color. At hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 6 and 12 days, the average water hyacinth, water lettuce and parrot’s feather yields were 83, 51 and 51 g (dm) m-2 and 49, 29 and 22 g (dm) m-2, respectively. The aquatic plants were able to significantly reduce the pollution load of the aquaculture wastewater. The TS, COD, NH4+-N, NO2--N, NO3--N and PO43--P reductions ranged from 21.4 to 48.0%, from 71.1 to 89.5%, from 55.9 to 76.0%, from 49.6 to 90.6%, from 34.5 to 54.4% and from 64.5 to 76.8%, respectively. Generally, the reductions increased with longer retention times and were highest in compartments containing water hyacinth followed by compartments containing water lettuce and parrot’s feather. In terms of COD, NO3--N and PO43--P, the effluent leaving the hydroponics system was suitable for reuse in aquaculture. However, the effluent had slightly high levels of TS, NH3-N, NO2--N and pH after treatment.
  A. E. Ghaly and F. N. Alkoaik
  Problem statement: Protein deficiency is one of the major nutritional problems in the developing world. The most disastrous consequences occur in children where protein malnutrition manifests itself in forms of two notorious diseases: Marasmus and kwashiorkor. Expansion of present agricultural practices into marginal lands is expected to solve this chronic protein shortage. The process of photosynthesis is the only non depletable protein source and can supply some essential amino acids as well as provide adequate nitrogen in the diet for synthesis of non essential amino acids in addition to vitamins and minerals. Approach: The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional values of common plant leaves and determine the feasibility of using them as a protein supplement. Six plants were cultivated and tested for their nutritional quality: amaranth, cowpea, sugar been, pumpkin, sweet potato and cabbage. Results: Pumpkin leaves recorded the highest protein yield (11.75%) followed by amaranth (10.5%) The protein contents in the leaves of sweet potato, cowpea, cabbage and sugar been were much lower (7.85, 6.95, 5.60 and 3.45%, respectively). Conclusion: Except for sugar bean, all plants had higher extractable protein content than cabbage. Proper use of the growing season can achieve high protein yield. Clean cutting will ensure that the leaves do not deteriorate within a few hours when kept in cool place and freezing leaves can improve protein extractability. The test plants should be given a trial as protein sources for human. Plant leaves have vitamins, minerals and essential amino acids and when consumed in adequate amounts they can supplement protein especially in areas where the environment is very hostile to livestock keeping or where fish protein is lacking. The optimum harvest age, fertilizer requirements and the possibility of combining two or more plants together to improve protein content should be studied. The amino acid, minerals and vitamins profiles should also be determined.
  A. E. Ghaly , D. Dave , S. Budge and M. S. Brooks
  Problem statement: Spoilage of food products is due to chemical, enzymatic or microbial activities One-fourth of the world’s food supply and 30% of landed fish are lost through microbial activity alone. With the ever growing world population and the need to store and transport the food from one place to another where it is needed, food preservation becomes necessary in order to increase its shelf life and maintain its nutritional value, texture and flavor. The freshness and quality of fish have always gained the attention by Food Regulatory Agencies and Food Processing Industry. Proper handling, pretreatment and preservation techniques can improve the quality fish and fish products and increase their shelf life. Methodology: Historically salting, drying, smoking, fermentation and canning were the methods to prevent fish spoilage and extend its shelf life. In response to consumer demand for texture, appearance and taste, new methods were developed including: Cooling, freezing and chemical preservation. A comprehensive review of the literature on the subject of fish spoilage and modern preservation techniques was carried out. Conclusion: Fish spoilage results from three basic mechanisms: Enzymatic autolysis, oxidation, microbial growth. Low temperature storage and chemical techniques for controlling water activity, enzymatic, oxidative and microbial spoilage are the most common in the industry today. A process involving the addition of an EDTA (1 mM)-TBHQ (0.02%) combination and ascorbic acid and storage at refrigerated temperatures (5°C) in darkness can be the most positive for controlling the spoilage of fish and fish product. The suggested process would address antimicrobial activity as well as destructive oxidation of the desired lipids and fats. However, more efforts are required to understand the role of proximate composition of fish, post harvest history, environmental conditions, initial microbial load, type and nature of bacteria and their interaction in order to optimize the shelf-life of fish.
  A. M. Snow and A. E. Ghaly
  Water hyacinth, water lettuce and parrot’s feather plants were examined for their ability to remove nutrients from aquaculture wastewater at two retention times. During the experiment, the aquatic plants grew rapidly in the hydroponics system and appeared healthy with green color. At hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 6 and 12 days, the average water hyacinth, water lettuce and parrot’s feather yields were 83, 51 and 51 g (dm) m-2 and 49, 29 and 22 g (dm) m-2, respectively. The aquatic plants were able to significantly reduce the pollution load of the aquaculture wastewater. The TS, COD, NH4+-N, NO2--N, NO3--N and PO43--P reductions ranged from 21.4 to 48.0%, from 71.1 to 89.5%, from 55.9 to 76.0%, from 49.6 to 90.6%, from 34.5 to 54.4% and from 64.5 to 76.8%, respectively. Generally, the reductions increased with longer retention times and were highest in compartments containing water hyacinth followed by compartments containing water lettuce and parrot’s feather. The nutritive value of the three wastewater grown plants was assessed to determine the suitability of using the plants as a component in fish feed. The three wastewater grown plants did not contain sufficient amounts of protein and fat to meet the dietary requirements of fish and shellfish. They also contained high concentrations of K, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se and Zn, which can lead to reduced feed intake, weight gain and growth rates in fish and shellfish.
  A. E. Ghaly , F. Alkoaik , A. Snow and R. Singh
  An effective thermophilic composting bioreactor, in which a homogenous distribution of temperature was maintained at 63-65°C by the addition of a bioavailable carbon and low mixing, was developed. The bioreactor operated on a mixture of tomato plant residues-wood shavings-municipal solid waste compost infected with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). The initial C: N ratio and moisture content of the compost mixture were adjusted to 30:1 and 60%, respectively. The composting process was successful in destroying the tobacco mosaic virus. The results showed that the ability of the untreated virus (inoculum) to infect tobacco plants (150 LL L-1) was much higher than its ability to infect tomato plants (22 LL L-1). The TMV completely lost its ability to infect the leaves of susceptible hosts (tobacco and tomato plants) after 96 hrs of controlled thermophilic (63-65 °C) composting (or 126 h from the start of the composting process). Semilog plots of the ratio of the infection ability of the surviving virus to that of the initial inoculum (as measured by the number of local lesions) were developed. The decimal reduction time (the time necessary to reduce the infection ability of TMV by 1-log or 90%) was found to be 62.4 and 109.7 hrs for tobacco and tomato plants, respectively. The relatively short time required for complete inactivation of TMV in this study was achieved as a result of the extension of the thermophilic stage and maintaining a constant high temperature with a uniform temperature distribution by the continuous addition of the proper amount of bioavailable carbon (used cooking oil) and low mixing.
  A. E. Ghaly and N. S. Mahmoud
  The suitability of the triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) for dehydrogenase activity measurement of the vegetative cells of the fungal species Aspergillus niger was investigated. The triphenyl formazan (TF) yield increased with the increases in TTC concentration, pH, temperature and incubation time within the studied ranges. The effects of individual parameters, as well as the combined effects, on the TF yield were found to follow exponential expressions. The sensitivity analysis showed that the TF yield is more sensitive to changes in temperature followed by pH, TTC concentration and incubation time. Although the rate of increase in the enzyme activity decreased gradually with the increase in temperature, no enzyme denaturation was observer below 55 °C. The optimum TTC-test conditions for measuring the dehydrogenase activity of A. niger vegetative cells are a TTC concentration of 15 g/L, a pH of 9, a temperature of 55 °C and an incubation time of 4 h. Although the procedure has been successfully tested with mycelia of different stages of growth, it would be interesting to test the effects of different stages of growth on TTC reduction under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions.
  A. E. Ghaly , M. A. Kamal , N. S. Mahmoud and R. Cote
  The suitability of a passive technology, consisting of filters composed of a mixture of limestone and sandstone rocks, for the treatment of landfill leachates containing 6.6 mg L-1 iron and 1.8 mg L-1 manganese were investigated. The limestone and the limestone/sandstone filters successfully removed iron from the prepared solutions. The filters removed on average a minimum of 97.60% of the iron from solution on a daily basis. The removal of manganese from solution was not as efficient as iron removal. The filters removed between 22.22% and 100% of the manganese from solution. Neither the filter type nor the solution type affected the iron and manganese removal efficiencies. Although iron precipitate was evident during the 7 day experimental period, armoring did not affect the removal efficiency of the elements. The pH of the water samples did not exceed 7.7. Therefore, the wetland ecosystem should be able to adjust to water having a slightly higher pH without suffering adverse effects.
  C. Galbrand , I. G. Lemieux , A. E. Ghaly , R. Cote and M. Verma
  A surface flow constructed wetland was used for the treatment of landfill leachate and industrial park runoff. The wetland consisted of seven cells and was designed as a kidney shape to facilitate high retention time. The water quality was assessed for iron, manganese, phosphorus (orthophosphate), pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrogen (ammonia, nitrate, nitrite and TKN), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and total dissolved solids (TDS). The water quality parameters were measured at inlet, cell 1 (unvegetated area), cell 2, cell 3 and outlet to determine progress in treatment efficiency as water flow through the wetland. The reductions in iron, manganese, ammonia and TKN were 24.2 %, 6.7 %, 37 % and 5.9 %, respectively. The concentrations of nitrite, nitrate and DO were within the Canadian guidelines for the protection of aquatic animals. Increases in COD, TSS and TDS concentrations of 11.8 %, 5.2 % and 7.5 %, were observed at outlet mainly due to immature vegetation and underdeveloped biodiversity.
  A. Snow , A. E. Ghaly and R. Cote
  A surface flow wetland was constructed in the Burnside Industrial Park, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, to treat stormwater runoff from the surrounding watersheds which are comprised primarily of commercial properties and two former landfills. The aim was to protect a freshwater ecosystem that consists of a 4.6 km long brook and two lakes. The ability of the constructed wetland to retain iron and manganese from the influent water was investigated and the change in pH of the water as it flowed through the cells was assessed. In 2004, the total iron removal efficiency of the constructed wetland ranged from a low of 47.13 % to a high of 84.74 % and in 2006 ranged from a low of 35.56 % to a high of 78.49 % depending on rain events. The outlet total iron concentrations in 2006 were not significantly different from those reported for 2004. In 2004, the total manganese removal efficiency of the constructed wetland ranged from a low of 25.75 % to a high of 51.61 % and in 2006 ranged from a low of 0.0 % to a high of 33.33 % depending on rain events. The inlet and the outlet total manganese concentrations in the constructed wetland from August to October 2006 were significantly higher than the inlet and the outlet total manganese concentrations reported for August to October 2004 because water levels in the constructed wetland were very low and the average pH of the outlet water was lower in 2006. In 2004 and 2006, the pH of the water in the constructed wetland had average inlet values of 6.70 and 6.26 and average outlet values of 7.28 and 6.70, respectively.
 
 
 
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