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Articles by A. C Lardo
Total Records ( 5 ) for A. C Lardo
  P. V Johnston , T Sasano , K Mills , R Evers , S. T Lee , R. R Smith , A. C Lardo , S Lai , C Steenbergen , G Gerstenblith , R Lange and E. Marban
 

Background— Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) isolated from human endomyocardial biopsies reduce infarct size and improve cardiac function in mice. Safety and efficacy testing in large animals is necessary for clinical translation.

Methods and Results— Mesenchymal stem cells, which resemble CDCs in size and thrombogenicity, have been associated with infarction after intracoronary infusion. To maximize CDC engraftment while avoiding infarction, we optimized the infusion protocol in 19 healthy pigs. A modified cocktail of CDCs in calcium-free PBS, 100 U/mL of heparin, and 250 µg/mL of nitroglycerin eliminated infusion-related infarction. Subsequent infusion experiments in 17 pigs with postinfarct left ventricular dysfunction showed CDC doses ≥107 but <2.5x107 result in new myocardial tissue formation without infarction. In a pivotal randomized study, 7 infarcted pigs received 300 000 CDCs/kg (107 total) and 7 received placebo (vehicle alone). Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging 8 weeks later showed CDC treatment decreased relative infarct size (19.2% to 14.2% of left ventricle infarcted, P=0.01), whereas placebo did not (17.7% to 15.3%, P=0.22). End-diastolic volume increased in placebo, but not in CDC-treated animals. Hemodynamically, the rate of pressure change (dP/dt) maximum and dP/dt minimum were significantly better with CDC infusion. There was no difference between groups in the ability to induce ventricular tachycardia, nor was there any tumor or ectopic tissue formation.

Conclusions— Intracoronary delivery of CDCs in a preclinical model of postinfarct left ventricular dysfunction results in formation of new cardiac tissue, reduces relative infarct size, attenuates adverse remodeling, and improves hemodynamics. The evidence of efficacy without obvious safety concerns at 8 weeks of follow-up motivates human studies in patients after myocardial infarction and in chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy.

  A Kolandaivelu , M. M Zviman , V Castro , A. C Lardo , R. D Berger and H. R. Halperin
  Background—

Failure to achieve properly localized, permanent tissue destruction is a common cause of arrhythmia recurrence after cardiac ablation. Current methods of assessing lesion size and location during cardiac radiofrequency ablation are unreliable or not suited for repeated assessment during the procedure. MRI thermography could be used to delineate permanent ablation lesions because tissue heating above 50°C is the cause of permanent tissue destruction during radiofrequency ablation. However, image artifacts caused by cardiac motion, the ablation electrode, and radiofrequency ablation currently pose a challenge to MRI thermography in the heart. In the current study, we sought to demonstrate the feasibility of MRI thermography during cardiac ablation.

Methods and Results—

An MRI-compatible electrophysiology catheter and filtered radiofrequency ablation system was used to perform ablation in the left ventricle of 6 mongrel dogs in a 1.5-T MRI system. Fast gradient-echo imaging was performed before and during radiofrequency ablation, and thermography images were derived from the preheating and postheating images. Lesion extent by thermography was within 20% of the gross pathology lesion.

Conclusions—

MR thermography appears to be a promising technique for monitoring lesion formation and may allow for more accurate placement and titration of ablation, possibly reducing arrhythmia recurrences.

  R. T George , A Arbab Zadeh , J. M Miller , K Kitagawa , H. J Chang , D. A Bluemke , L Becker , O Yousuf , J Texter , A. C Lardo and J. A.C. Lima
 

Background— Multidetector computed tomography coronary angiography (CTA) is a robust method for the noninvasive diagnosis of coronary artery disease. However, in its current form, CTA is limited in its prediction of myocardial ischemia. The purpose of this study was to test whether adenosine stress computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (CTP), when added to CTA, can predict perfusion abnormalities caused by obstructive atherosclerosis.

Methods and Results— Forty patients with a history of abnormal single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI) underwent adenosine stress 64-row (n=24) or 256-row (n=16) detector CTP and CTA. A subset of 27 patients had invasive angiography available for quantitative coronary angiography. CTA and quantitative coronary angiography were evaluated for stenoses ≥50%, and SPECT-MPI was evaluated for fixed and reversible perfusion deficits using a 17-segment model. CTP images were analyzed for the transmural differences in perfusion using the transmural perfusion ratio (subendocardial attenuation density/subepicardial attenuation density). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for the combination of CTA and CTP to detect obstructive atherosclerosis causing perfusion abnormalities using the combination of quantitative coronary angiography and SPECT as the gold standard was 86%, 92%, 92%, and 85% in the per-patient analysis and 79%, 91%, 75%, and 92% in the per vessel/territory analysis, respectively.

Conclusions— The combination of CTA and CTP can detect atherosclerosis causing perfusion abnormalities when compared with the combination of quantitative coronary angiography and SPECT.

  R Lautamaki , K. H Schuleri , T Sasano , M. S Javadi , A Youssef , J Merrill , S. G Nekolla , M. R Abraham , A. C Lardo and F. M. Bengel
 

Background— Hybrid positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT) allows for combination of PET perfusion/metabolism imaging with infarct detection by CT delayed contrast enhancement. We used this technique to obtain biomorphological insights into the interrelation between tissue damage, inflammation, and microvascular obstruction early after myocardial infarction.

Methods and Results— A porcine model of left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion/reperfusion was studied. Seven animals underwent PET-CT within 3 days of infarction, and a control group of 3 animals was scanned at >4 weeks. Perfusion and glucose uptake were assessed by [13N]-ammonia/[18F]-deoxyglucose (FDG), and 64-slice CT delayed contrast enhancement was measured. In the acute infarct model, CT revealed a no-reflow phenomenon suggesting microvascular obstruction in 80% of all infarct segments. PET showed increased FDG uptake in 68% of the CT-defined infarct segments. Ex vivo staining and histology showed active inflammation in the acute infarct area as an explanation for increased glucose uptake. In chronic infarction, CT showed no microvascular obstruction and agreed well with matched perfusion/metabolism defects on PET.

Conclusions— Perfusion/metabolism PET and delayed enhancement CT can be combined within a single hybrid PET-CT session. Increased regional FDG uptake in the acute infarct area is frequently observed. In contrast to the chronic infarct setting, this indicates tissue inflammation that is commonly associated with microvascular obstruction as identified by no reflow on CT. The consequences of these pathophysiological findings for subsequent ventricular remodeling should be explored in further studies.

 
 
 
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