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Articles by A. B Chapman
Total Records ( 2 ) for A. B Chapman
  A. B Chapman , V. E Torres , R. D Perrone , T. I Steinman , K. T Bae , J. P Miller , D. C Miskulin , F. R Oskoui , A Masoumi , M. C Hogan , F. T Winklhofer , W Braun , P. A Thompson , C. M Meyers , C Kelleher and R. W. Schrier

Background and objectives: Two HALT PKD trials will investigate interventions that potentially slow kidney disease progression in hypertensive autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients. Studies were designed in early and later stages of ADPKD to assess the impact of intensive blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and level of BP control on progressive renal disease.

Design, settings, participants, and measurements: PKD-HALT trials are multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials studying 1018 hypertensive ADPKD patients enrolled over 3 yr with 4 to 8 yr of follow-up. In study A, 548 participants, estimated GFR (eGFR) of >60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 were randomized to one of four arms in a 2-by-2 design: combination angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) therapy versus ACEi monotherapy at two levels of BP control. In study B, 470 participants, eGFR of 25 to 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 compared ACEi/ARB therapy versus ACEi monotherapy, with BP control of 120 to 130/70 to 80 mmHg. Primary outcomes of studies A and B are MR-based percent change kidney volume and a composite endpoint of time to 50% reduction of baseline estimated eGFR, ESRD, or death, respectively.

Results: This report describes design issues related to (1) novel endpoints such as kidney volume, (2) home versus office BP measures, and (3) the impact of RAAS inhibition on kidney and patient outcomes, safety, and quality of life.

Conclusions: HALT PKD will evaluate potential benefits of rigorous BP control and inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system on kidney disease progression in ADPKD.

  M Barbalic , G. L Schwartz , A. B Chapman , S. T Turner and E. Boerwinkle

Recent experimental and clinical studies suggested that apart from playing an essential role in blood pressure homeostasis, aldosterone is involved in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular and renal diseases by inducing structural changes in the heart, kidney, and vessel wall. The interindividual variation of aldosterone response to antihypertensive treatment is considerable, and is at least partially explained by genetic variation. In this study, we investigated aldosterone response to two antihypertensive drugs—a thiazide diuretic and an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). Genetic variations in 50 candidate genes were tested for association with aldosterone response in four independent samples: African American (AA) responders to a diuretic (n = 289), AA responders to an ARB (n = 252), European American (EA) responders to a diuretic (n = 295) and EA responders to an ARB (n = 300). Linear regression was used to test the association with inclusion of age, sex, and body mass index as covariates. The results indicated the existence of one or more variants in the kininogen gene (KNG) that influence interindividual variation in aldosterone response. The significant association was replicated in three of four studied groups. The single nucleotide polymorphism rs4686799 was associated in AA and EA responders to the diuretic (P = 0.04 and P = 0.07, respectively), and rs5030062 and rs698078 were significantly associated in EA responders to the diuretic (P = 0.05 and P = 0.01) and EA responders to the ARB (P = 0.04 and P = 0.02). Although the clinical implication of KNG gene variation to antihypertensive drug response is yet to be determined, this novel candidate locus provides important new insights into drug response physiology.

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