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Articles by A Wolk
Total Records ( 4 ) for A Wolk
  J. E Lee , S Mannisto , D Spiegelman , D. J Hunter , L Bernstein , P. A van den Brandt , J. E Buring , E Cho , D. R English , A Flood , J. L Freudenheim , G. G Giles , E Giovannucci , N Hakansson , P. L Horn Ross , E. J Jacobs , M. F Leitzmann , J. R Marshall , M. L McCullough , A. B Miller , T. E Rohan , J. A Ross , A Schatzkin , L. J Schouten , J Virtamo , A Wolk , S. M Zhang and S. A. Smith Warner

Fruit and vegetable consumption has been hypothesized to reduce the risk of renal cell cancer. We conducted a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies, including 1,478 incident cases of renal cell cancer (709 women and 769 men) among 530,469 women and 244,483 men followed for up to 7 to 20 years. Participants completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline. Using the primary data from each study, the study-specific relative risks (RR) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model and then pooled using a random effects model. We found that fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with a reduced risk of renal cell cancer. Compared with <200 g/d of fruit and vegetable intake, the pooled multivariate RR for ≥600 g/d was 0.68 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.54-0.87; P for between-studies heterogeneity = 0.86; P for trend = 0.001]. Compared with <100 g/d, the pooled multivariate RRs (95% CI) for ≥400 g/d were 0.79 (0.63-0.99; P for trend = 0.03) for total fruit and 0.72 (0.48-1.08; P for trend = 0.07) for total vegetables. For specific carotenoids, the pooled multivariate RRs (95% CIs) comparing the highest and lowest quintiles were 0.87 (0.73-1.03) for -carotene, 0.82 (0.69-0.98) for β-carotene, 0.86 (0.73-1.01) for β-cryptoxanthin, 0.82 (0.64-1.06) for lutein/zeaxanthin, and 1.13 (0.95-1.34) for lycopene. In conclusion, increasing fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with decreasing risk of renal cell cancer; carotenoids present in fruit and vegetables may partly contribute to this protection. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009;18(6):1730–9)

  E. B Levitan , A. Z Yang , A Wolk and M. A. Mittleman

Background— Obesity is associated with heart failure (HF) incidence. We examined the strength of the association of body mass index (BMI) with HF by age and joint associations of BMI and waist circumference (WC).

Methods and Results— Women aged 48 to 83 (n=36873) and men aged 45 to 79 (n=43487) self-reported height, weight, and WC. HF hospitalization or death (n=382 women, 718 men) between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2004, was determined through administrative registers. Hazard ratios, from Cox proportional-hazards models, for an interquartile range higher BMI were 1.39 (95% CI, 1.15 to 1.68) at age 60 and 1.13 (95% CI, 1.02 to 1.27) at 75 in women. In men, hazard ratios were 1.54 (95% CI, 1.37 to 1.73) at 60 and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.16 to 1.35) at 75. A 10-cm higher WC was associated with 15% (95% CI, 2% to 31%) and 18% (95% CI, 4% to 33%) higher HF rates among women with BMI 25 and 30 kg/m2, respectively; hazard ratios for 1 kg/m2 higher BMI were 1.00 (95% CI, 0.96 to 1.04) and 1.01 (95% CI, 0.98 to 1.04) for WC 70 and 100 cm, respectively. In men, a 10-cm higher WC was associated with 16% and 18% higher rates for BMI 25 and 30 kg/m2, respectively; a 1 kg/m2 higher BMI was associated with 4% higher HF rates regardless of WC.

Conclusions— Strength of the association between BMI and HF events declined with age. In women, higher WC was associated with HF at all levels of BMI. Both BMI and WC were predictors among men.

  E Mostofsky , E. B Levitan , A Wolk and M. A. Mittleman

Randomized clinical trials have shown that chocolate intake reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and observational studies have found an inverse association between chocolate intake and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between chocolate intake and incidence of heart failure (HF).

Methods and Results—

We conducted a prospective cohort study of 31 823 women aged 48 to 83 years without baseline diabetes or a history of HF or myocardial infarction who were participants in the Swedish Mammography Cohort. In addition to answering health and lifestyle questions, participants completed a food-frequency questionnaire. Women were followed from January 1, 1998, through December 31, 2006, for HF hospitalization or death through the Swedish inpatient and cause-of-death registers. Over 9 years of follow-up, 419 women were hospitalized for incident HF (n=379) or died of HF (n=40). Compared with no regular chocolate intake, the multivariable-adjusted rate ratio of HF was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.58 to 0.95) for women consuming 1 to 3 servings of chocolate per month, 0.68 (95% CI, 0.50 to 0.93) for those consuming 1 to 2 servings per week, 1.09 (95% CI, 0.74 to 1.62) for those consuming 3 to 6 servings per week, and 1.23 (95% CI, 0.73 to 2.08) for those consuming ≥1 servings per day (P=0.0005 for quadratic trend).


In this population, moderate habitual chocolate intake was associated with a lower rate of HF hospitalization or death, but the protective association was not observed with intake of ≥1 servings per day.

  E. B Levitan , A Wolk and M. A. Mittleman

Fatty fish and marine omega-3 fatty acids were associated with lower rates of heart failure (HF) among US elderly, but this has not been confirmed in broader age ranges or other populations where source and type of fish may differ. We therefore conducted a population-based, prospective study of 39 367 middle-aged and older Swedish men.

Methods and results

Diet was measured using food-frequency questionnaires. Men were followed for HF through Swedish inpatient and cause-of-death registers from 1 January 1998 to 31 December 2004. We used proportional hazards models adjusted for age and other covariates to estimate hazard ratios (HR). Compared with no consumption, men who ate fatty fish once per week had an HR of 0.88 (95% CI 0.68–1.13). Hazard ratios for consumption two times per week and ≥3 times per week were 0.99 and 0.97, respectively. Hazard ratios across quintiles of marine omega-3 were 1, 0.94 (95% CI 0.74–1.20), 0.67 (95% CI 0.50–0.90), 0.89 (95% CI 0.68–1.16), 1.00 (95% CI 0.77–1.29).


In this population, moderate intake of fatty fish and marine omega-3 fatty acids was associated with lower rates of HF, though the association for fish intake was not statistically significant; higher intake was not associated with additional benefit.

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