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Articles by A White
Total Records ( 8 ) for A White
  J. M Metzger , K Gagen , K. A Raustad , L Yang , A White , S. P Wang , S Craw , P Liu , T Lanza , L. S Lin , R. P Nargund , X. M Guan , A. M Strack and M. L. Reitman

Treatment of rodents with a bombesin receptor subtype-3 (BRS-3) agonist reduces food intake and increases fasting metabolic rate, causing weight loss with continued treatment. In small mammals, core body temperature (Tb) is regulated in part by nutritional status, with a reduced Tb during fasting. We report that fed Brs3 knockout mice have a lower Tb, which is discordant with their nutritional status. Treatment of wild-type mice with a BRS-3 agonist increased Tb, more so when the baseline Tb was reduced such as by fasting or during the inactive phase of the light cycle. With repeated BRS-3 agonist dosing, the Tb increase attenuated despite continued weight loss efficacy. The increase in Tb was not prevented by inhibitors of prostaglandin E (PGE) production but was partially reduced by a β-adrenergic blocker. These results demonstrate that BRS-3 has a role in body temperature regulation, presumably secondary to its effect on energy metabolism, including effects on sympathetic tone. By making use of this phenomenon, the reversal of the fasting Tb reduction was developed into a sensitive single-dose pharmacodynamic assay for BRS-3 agonism and other antiobesity compounds acting by various mechanisms, including sibutramine, cannabinoid-1, and melanin-concentrating hormone-1 receptor blockers, and melanocortin, β3-adrenergic, and cholecystokinin-1 receptor agonists. These drugs increased both the fasted Tb and the fasted, resting metabolic rates. The Tb assay is a robust, information-rich assay that is simpler and has a greater throughput than measuring metabolic rate and is a practical, effective tool for drug discovery.

  A. L Firth , J Yau , A White , P. G Chiles , J. J Marsh , T. A Morris and J. X. J. Yuan

Acute pulmonary embolism occurs in more than half a million people a year in the United States. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) develops in ~4% of these patients due to unresolved thromboemboli. CTEPH is thus a relatively common, progressive, and potentially fatal disease. One currently proposed theory for the poor resolution advocates that modification of fibrinogen in CTEPH patients causes resistance of emboli to fibrinolysis. The current study investigated the regulation of cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt), central to the control of cell migration, proliferation, and contraction, by chronic exposure of pulmonary artery smooth muscle (PASMC) and endothelial (PAEC) cells to fibrinogen and fibrin. Basal [Ca2+]cyt was substantially elevated in PAEC after culture on fibrinogen, fibrin, and thrombin and in PASMC on fibrinogen and fibrin. In PAEC, fibrinogen significantly decreased the peak [Ca2+]cyt transient (P <0.001) without a change in the transient peak width (at 50% of the peak height). This response was independent of effects on the proteinase-activated receptor (PAR) 1. Furthermore, chronic exposure to thrombin, an activator of PAR, significantly reduced the peak agonist-induced Ca2+ release in PAEC, but increased it in PASMC. The recovery rate of the agonist-induced [Ca2+]cyt transients decelerated in PASMC chronically exposed to fibrin; a small increase of the peak Ca2+ was also observed. Substantial augmentation of PASMC (but not PAEC) proliferation was observed in response to chronic fibrin exposure. In conclusion, chronic exposure to fibrinogen, fibrin, and thrombin caused differential changes in [Ca2+]cyt in PAEC and PASMC. Such changes in [Ca2+]cyt may contribute to vascular changes in patients who have CTEPH where the pulmonary vasculature is persistently exposed to thromboemboli.

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