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Articles by A Schatzkin
Total Records ( 3 ) for A Schatzkin
  J. E Lee , S Mannisto , D Spiegelman , D. J Hunter , L Bernstein , P. A van den Brandt , J. E Buring , E Cho , D. R English , A Flood , J. L Freudenheim , G. G Giles , E Giovannucci , N Hakansson , P. L Horn Ross , E. J Jacobs , M. F Leitzmann , J. R Marshall , M. L McCullough , A. B Miller , T. E Rohan , J. A Ross , A Schatzkin , L. J Schouten , J Virtamo , A Wolk , S. M Zhang and S. A. Smith Warner
 

Fruit and vegetable consumption has been hypothesized to reduce the risk of renal cell cancer. We conducted a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies, including 1,478 incident cases of renal cell cancer (709 women and 769 men) among 530,469 women and 244,483 men followed for up to 7 to 20 years. Participants completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline. Using the primary data from each study, the study-specific relative risks (RR) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model and then pooled using a random effects model. We found that fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with a reduced risk of renal cell cancer. Compared with <200 g/d of fruit and vegetable intake, the pooled multivariate RR for ≥600 g/d was 0.68 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.54-0.87; P for between-studies heterogeneity = 0.86; P for trend = 0.001]. Compared with <100 g/d, the pooled multivariate RRs (95% CI) for ≥400 g/d were 0.79 (0.63-0.99; P for trend = 0.03) for total fruit and 0.72 (0.48-1.08; P for trend = 0.07) for total vegetables. For specific carotenoids, the pooled multivariate RRs (95% CIs) comparing the highest and lowest quintiles were 0.87 (0.73-1.03) for -carotene, 0.82 (0.69-0.98) for β-carotene, 0.86 (0.73-1.01) for β-cryptoxanthin, 0.82 (0.64-1.06) for lutein/zeaxanthin, and 1.13 (0.95-1.34) for lycopene. In conclusion, increasing fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with decreasing risk of renal cell cancer; carotenoids present in fruit and vegetables may partly contribute to this protection. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009;18(6):1730–9)

  P Vineis , A Schatzkin and J. D. Potter
 

At least five coherent models of carcinogenesis have been proposed in the history of cancer research in the last century. Model 1 is mainly centered around mutations, and its main focus is on the chemical environment, radiation and viruses. Model 2 has to do mainly with genome instability and it focuses on familiality. Model 3 is based on non-genotoxic mechanisms, and clonal expansion and epigenetics are its main features. We propose a fourth model, which can encompass the previous three, based on the concept of a ‘Darwinian’ cell selection (we clarify that the term Darwinian needs to be used cautiously, being a short cut for ‘somatic cellular selection’). Finally, a fifth model has recently become popular, based on the concept of ‘tissue organization’. We describe examples of the five models and how they have been formalized mathematically. The five models largely overlap, both scientifically and historically, but for the sake of clarity, it is useful to treat them separately. We also argue that the five models can be included into a simpler scheme, i.e. two types of models: (i) biological changes in the epithelium alone lead to malignancy and (ii) changes in stroma/extracellular matrix are necessary (along with changes in epithelium) for malignancy. Our description, though simplified, looks realistic, it is able to capture the historical sequence of carcinogenesis theories in the last century and can serve as a frame to make research hypotheses more explicit.

  A. C. M Thiebaut , L Jiao , D. T Silverman , A. J Cross , F. E Thompson , A. F Subar , A. R Hollenbeck , A Schatzkin and R. Z. Stolzenberg Solomon
  Background

Previous research relating dietary fat, a modifiable risk factor, to pancreatic cancer has been inconclusive.

Methods

We prospectively analyzed the association between intakes of fat, fat subtypes, and fat food sources and exocrine pancreatic cancer in the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study, a US cohort of 308 736 men and 216 737 women who completed a 124-item food frequency questionnaire in 1995–1996. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models, with adjustment for energy intake, smoking history, body mass index, and diabetes. Statistical tests were two-sided.

Results

Over an average follow-up of 6.3 years, 865 men and 472 women were diagnosed with exocrine pancreatic cancer (45.0 and 34.5 cases per 100 000 person-years, respectively). After multivariable adjustment and combination of data for men and women, pancreatic cancer risk was directly related to the intakes of total fat (highest vs lowest quintile, 46.8 vs 33.2 cases per 100 000 person-years, HR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.46; Ptrend = .03), saturated fat (51.5 vs 33.1 cases per 100 000 person-years, HR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.14 to 1.62; Ptrend < .001), and monounsaturated fat (46.2 vs 32.9 cases per 100 000 person-years, HR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.46; Ptrend = .05) but not polyunsaturated fat. The associations were strongest for saturated fat from animal food sources (52.0 vs 32.2 cases per 100 000 person-years, HR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.20 to 1.70; Ptrend < .001); specifically, intakes from red meat and dairy products were both statistically significantly associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk (HR = 1.27 and 1.19, respectively).

Conclusion

In this large prospective cohort with a wide range of intakes, dietary fat of animal origin was associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk.

 
 
 
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