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Articles by A Schafer
Total Records ( 3 ) for A Schafer
  D Teupser , R Baber , U Ceglarek , M Scholz , T Illig , C Gieger , L. M Holdt , A Leichtle , K. H Greiser , D Huster , P Linsel Nitschke , A Schafer , P. S Braund , L Tiret , K Stark , D Raaz Schrauder , G. M Fiedler , W Wilfert , F Beutner , S Gielen , A Grosshennig , I. R Konig , P Lichtner , I. M Heid , A Kluttig , N. E El Mokhtari , D Rubin , A. B Ekici , A Reis , C. D Garlichs , A. S Hall , G Matthes , C Wittekind , C Hengstenberg , F Cambien , S Schreiber , K Werdan , T Meitinger , M Loeffler , N. J Samani , J Erdmann , H. E Wichmann , H Schunkert and J. Thiery

Phytosterols are plant-derived sterols that are taken up from food and can serve as biomarkers of cholesterol uptake. Serum levels are under tight genetic control. We used a genomic approach to study the molecular regulation of serum phytosterol levels and potential links to coronary artery disease (CAD).

Methods and Results—

A genome-wide association study for serum phytosterols (campesterol, sitosterol, brassicasterol) was conducted in a population-based sample from KORA (Cooperative Research in the Region of Augsburg) (n=1495) with subsequent replication in 2 additional samples (n=1157 and n=1760). Replicated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for association with premature CAD in a metaanalysis of 11 different samples comprising 13 764 CAD cases and 13 630 healthy controls. Genetic variants in the ATP-binding hemitransporter ABCG8 and at the blood group ABO locus were significantly associated with serum phytosterols. Effects in ABCG8 were independently related to SNPs rs4245791 and rs41360247 (combined P=1.6x10–50 and 6.2x10–25, respectively; n=4412). Serum campesterol was elevated 12% for each rs4245791 T-allele. The same allele was associated with 40% decreased hepatic ABCG8 mRNA expression (P=0.009). Effects at the ABO locus were related to SNP rs657152 (combined P=9.4x10–13). Alleles of ABCG8 and ABO associated with elevated phytosterol levels displayed significant associations with increased CAD risk (rs4245791 odds ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.14; P=2.2x10–6; rs657152 odds ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.19; P=9.4x10–6), whereas alleles at ABCG8 associated with reduced phytosterol levels were associated with reduced CAD risk (rs41360247 odds ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.91; P=1.3x10–5).


Common variants in ABCG8 and ABO are strongly associated with serum phytosterol levels and show concordant and previously unknown associations with CAD.

  J Ortiz , C Funk , A Schafer and J. Lechner

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae CLASP (CLIP-associated protein) Stu1 is essential for the establishment and maintenance of the mitotic spindle. Furthermore, Stu1 localizes to kinetochores. Here we show that, in prometaphase, Stu1 assembles in an Ndc80-dependent manner exclusively at kinetochores that are not attached to microtubules. Stu1 relocates to microtubules when a captured kinetochore reaches a spindle pole. This relocation does not depend on kinetochore biorientation, but requires a functional DASH complex. Stu1 at detached kinetochores facilitates kinetochore capturing. Furthermore, since most of the nuclear Stu1 is sequestered by one or a few detached kinetochores, the presence of detached kinetochores prevents Stu1 from localizing the spindle, and therefore from stabilizing the spindle. Thus, the sequestering of Stu1 by detached kinetochores serves as a checkpoint that keeps spindle poles in close proximity until all kinetochores are captured. This is likely to facilitate kinetochore biorientation. In agreement with the findings described above, a kinetochore mutant (okp1-52) that fails to release Stu1 from the kinetochore displays a severe spindle defect upon spindle pole body separation, and this defect can be rescued by destroying the okp1-52 kinetochore.

  S. M Alberts , C Sonntag , A Schafer and D. H. Wolf

Misfolded proteins of the secretory pathway are recognized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), retrotranslocated into the cytoplasm, and degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Right after retrotranslocation and polyubiquitination, they are extracted from the cytosolic side of the ER membrane through a complex consisting of the AAA ATPase Cdc48 (p97 in mammals), Ufd1, and Npl4. This complex delivers misfolded proteins to the proteasome for final degradation. Extraction, delivery, and processing of ERAD (ER-associated degradation) substrates to the proteasome requires additional cofactors of Cdc48. Here we characterize the UBX domain containing protein Ubx4 (Cui1) as a crucial factor for the degradation of polyubiquitinated proteins via ERAD. Ubx4 modulates the Cdc48-Ufd1-Npl4 complex to guarantee its correct function. Mutant variants of Ubx4 lead to defective degradation of misfolded proteins and accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins bound to Cdc48. We show the requirement of the UBX domain of Ubx4 for its function in ERAD. The observation that Ubx2 and Ubx4 are not found together in one complex with Cdc48 suggests several distinct steps in modulating the activity and localization of Cdc48 in ERAD.

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