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Articles by A Palma
Total Records ( 2 ) for A Palma
  A. E Fry , A Ghansa , K. S Small , A Palma , S Auburn , M Diakite , A Green , S Campino , Y. Y Teo , T. G Clark , A. E Jeffreys , J Wilson , M Jallow , F Sisay Joof , M Pinder , M. J Griffiths , N Peshu , T. N Williams , C. R Newton , K Marsh , M. E Molyneux , T. E Taylor , K. A Koram , A. R Oduro , W. O Rogers , K. A Rockett , P. C Sabeti and D. P. Kwiatkowski

The prevalence of CD36 deficiency in East Asian and African populations suggests that the causal variants are under selection by severe malaria. Previous analysis of data from the International HapMap Project indicated that a CD36 haplotype bearing a nonsense mutation (T1264G; rs3211938) had undergone recent positive selection in the Yoruba of Nigeria. To investigate the global distribution of this putative selection event, we genotyped T1264G in 3420 individuals from 66 populations. We confirmed the high frequency of 1264G in the Yoruba (26%). However, the 1264G allele is less common in other African populations and absent from all non-African populations without recent African admixture. Using long-range linkage disequilibrium, we studied two West African groups in depth. Evidence for recent positive selection at the locus was demonstrable in the Yoruba, although not in Gambians. We screened 70 variants from across CD36 for an association with severe malaria phenotypes, employing a case–control study of 1350 subjects and a family study of 1288 parent–offspring trios. No marker was significantly associated with severe malaria. We focused on T1264G, genotyping 10 922 samples from four African populations. The nonsense allele was not associated with severe malaria (pooled allelic odds ratio 1.0; 95% confidence interval 0.89–1.12; P = 0.98). These results suggest a range of possible explanations including the existence of alternative selection pressures on CD36, co-evolution between host and parasite or confounding caused by allelic heterogeneity of CD36 deficiency.

  A Taranta , A Gianviti , A Palma , V De Luca , L Mannucci , M. A Procaccino , G. M Ghiggeri , G Caridi , D Fruci , S Ferracuti , A Ferretti , C Pecoraro , M Gaido , R Penza , A Edefonti , L Murer , A. E Tozzi , F Emma and (on behalf of the Italian HUS surveillance study)

Background. Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) is a disorder characterized by thrombotic microangiopathy, which is caused in ‘typical forms’ by gastrointestinal infections with Escherichia Coli species that produce verotoxins. Several studies have identified negative prognostic factors of the disease, among which prolonged oliguria, neurological involvement and increased leukocytosis have been more consistently reported. We have hypothesized that the genetic background may also predispose to the development of typical forms of HUS and may influence the clinical course of the disease.

Methods. Fourteen polymorphisms, known to influence the coagulation pathway or the activity of the renin–angiotensin system, have been selected and studied in 150 Italian children with typical forms of HUS. Two hundred healthy Italian children were used as controls.

Results. The risk of developing HUS was strongly associated with the platelet glycoprotein 1b 145M allele (OR 3.08; CI: 1.62–5.85) (P < 0.001). A significant association was also found with polymorphisms located in the adipocyte-derived leucine aminopeptidase and factor V genes. A longer duration of dialysis was moderately associated with increased leukocytosis and with the 807T allele of the platelet glycoprotein 1a gene. High white blood cell count was also strongly associated with the risk of long-term sequelae (OR 2.91, CI: 1.21–6.98) (P < 0.02), whereas the 1166C allele of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor had a significant protective effect (OR 0.28, CI: 0.09–0.83) (P < 0.02).

Conclusions. These results highlight the role of glycoprotein 1b in the physiopathology of typical forms of HUS and show that the genetic background plays a role in the susceptibility and severity of the disease.

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