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Articles by A Naji
Total Records ( 2 ) for A Naji
  R Bhandare , J Schug , J Le Lay , A Fox , O Smirnova , C Liu , A Naji and K. H. Kaestner

The global diabetes epidemic poses a major challenge. Epigenetic events contribute to the etiology of diabetes; however, the lack of epigenomic analysis has limited the elucidation of the mechanistic basis for this link. To determine the epigenetic architecture of human pancreatic islets we mapped the genome-wide locations of four histone marks: three associated with gene activation—H3K4me1, H3K4me2, and H3K4me3—and one associated with gene repression, H3K27me3. Interestingly, the promoters of the highly transcribed insulin and glucagon genes are occupied only sparsely by H3K4me2 and H3K4me3. Globally, we identified important relationships between promoter structure, histone modification, and gene expression. We demonstrated co-occurrences of histone modifications including bivalent marks in mature islets. Furthermore, we found a set of promoters that is differentially modified between islets and other cell types. We also use our histone marks to determine which of the known diabetes-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms are likely to be part of regulatory elements. Our global map of histone marks will serve as an important resource for understanding the epigenetic basis of type 2 diabetes.

  S Semple , M van Tongeren , K. S Galea , L Maccalman , I Gee , O Parry , A Naji and J. G. Ayres

Objective: Evaluate the effect of smoke-free legislation on fine particulate [particulate matter <2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5)] air pollution levels in bars in Scotland, England, and Wales.

Design: Air quality was measured in 106 randomly selected bars in Scotland, England, and Wales before and after the introduction of smoking restrictions.

Methods: PM2.5 concentrations were measured covertly for 30-min periods before smoke-free legislation was introduced, again at 1–2 months post-ban (except Wales) and then at 12-months post-baseline (except Scotland). In Scotland and England, overt measurements were carried out to assess bar workers’ full-shift personal exposures to PM2.5. Postcode data were used to determine socio-economic status of the bar location.

Results: PM2.5 levels prior to smoke-free legislation were highest in Scotland (median 197 µg m–3), followed by Wales (median 184 µg m–3) and England (median 92 µg m–3). All three countries experienced a substantial reduction in PM2.5 concentrations following the introduction of the legislation with the median reduction ranging from 84 to 93%. Personal exposure reductions were also within this range. There was evidence that bars located in more deprived postcodes had higher PM2.5 levels prior to the legislation.

Conclusions: Prior to legislation PM2.5 concentrations within bars across the UK were much higher than the 65 µg m–3 ‘unhealthy’ threshold for outdoor air quality as set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Concentrations in Scottish and Welsh bars were, on average, two or more times greater than in English bars for which seasonal influences may be responsible. Legislation in all three countries produced improvements in indoor air quality that are consistent with other international studies.

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