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Articles by A Miller
Total Records ( 8 ) for A Miller
  A Miller and D. Kurpius

This experimental study used 244 participants to investigate citizen perceptions of news sources focusing on source credibility. Ten television news stories were created with varying source affiliation (officials or citizens), source race (African American or Caucasian), and type of story (hard or soft news). For the first time, results showed viewers do distinguish between the credibility of official and citizen sources. No difference was found in credibility on the basis of race. Results are discussed within the frameworks of civic journalism, hidden racism, and citizen sources.

  L. J Sobel , R Bansal , T. V Maia , J Sanchez , L Mazzone , K Durkin , J Liu , X Hao , I Ivanov , A Miller , L. L Greenhill and B. S. Peterson

Disturbances in the basal ganglia portions of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits likely contribute to the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The authors examined the morphologic features of the basal ganglia nuclei (caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus) in children with ADHD.


A total of 104 individuals (combined-type ADHD patients: N=47; healthy comparison subjects: N=57), aged 7 to 18 years, were examined in a cross-sectional case-control study using anatomical magnetic resonance imaging. Conventional volumes and the surface morphology for the basal ganglia were measured.


Overall volumes were significantly smaller only in the putamen. Analysis of the morphological surfaces revealed significant inward deformations in each of the three nuclei, localized primarily in portions of these nuclei that are components of limbic, associative, and sensorimotor pathways in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits in which these nuclei reside. The more prominent these inward deformations were in the patient group, the more severe the ADHD symptoms. Surface analyses also demonstrated significant outward deformations of all basal ganglia nuclei in the ADHD children treated with stimulants compared with those ADHD youth who were untreated. These stimulant-associated enlargements were in locations similar to the reduced volumes detected in the ADHD group relative to the comparison group. The outward deformations associated with stimulant medications attenuated the statistical effects of the primary group comparisons.


These findings potentially represent evidence of anatomical dysregulation in the circuitry of the basal ganglia in children with ADHD and suggest that stimulants may normalize morphological features of the basal ganglia in children with the disorder.

  A Miller , M Marotta , I Scordi Bello , Y Tammaro , M Marin and C. Divino

Objective  To examine the incidence, cause, and outcomes of ischemic colitis after endovascular stent graft repair of aortoiliac aneurysms (EVAR).

Design  Medical record review.

Setting  University teaching hospital.

Patients  Eight hundred nine patients treated during 10 years were included in the study. Preoperative data regarding the size of the aneurysm, hypogastric coil embolization, and inferior mesenteric artery patency were evaluated by means of computed tomographic scans and aortograms. Ischemic colitis was diagnosed by lower endoscopy or pathology reports.

Main Outcome Measures  Ischemic colitis after EVAR.

Results  Eleven patients (1.4%) developed ischemic colitis. Seven patients' episode occurred less than 30 days from repair (early), whereas 4 occurred 30 days or more from repair (late). Ten of 11 patients had preoperative inferior mesenteric artery occlusion. Microembolization was seen histologically in 2 patients in the early group, both of whom died. A significant increase in ischemic colitis was seen in patients undergoing preoperative unilateral hypogastric coil embolization (P = .02). Three of the patients with late ischemic colitis had comorbidities other than the EVAR to explain the ischemia.

Conclusions  The incidence of ischemic colitis is decreased in patients undergoing EVAR vs open repair. The cause of the ischemia is multifactorial and seems to differ between patients in the early and late groups. Microembolization tends to produce severe ischemic colitis and is usually fatal. There should be a low threshold for performing endoscopy in any patient thought to have ischemic colitis after EVAR.

  S Thomasset , D. P Berry , H Cai , K West , T. H Marczylo , D Marsden , K Brown , A Dennison , G Garcea , A Miller , D Hemingway , W. P Steward and A. J. Gescher

Naturally occurring anthocyanins possess colorectal cancer chemopreventive properties in rodent models. We investigated whether mirtocyan, an anthocyanin-rich standardized bilberry extract, causes pharmacodynamic changes consistent with chemopreventive efficacy and generates measurable levels of anthocyanins in blood, urine, and target tissue. Twenty-five colorectal cancer patients scheduled to undergo resection of primary tumor or liver metastases received mirtocyan 1.4, 2.8, or 5.6 grams (containing 0.5-2.0 grams anthocyanins) daily for 7 days before surgery. Bilberry anthocyanins were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with visible or mass spectrometric detection. Proliferation was determined by immunohistochemistry of Ki-67 in colorectal tumor. Concentrations of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I were measured in plasma. Mirtocyan anthocyanins and methyl and glucuronide metabolites were identified in plasma, colorectal tissue, and urine, but not in liver. Anthocyanin concentrations in plasma and urine were roughly dose-dependent, reaching ~179 ng/gram in tumor tissue at the highest dose. In tumor tissue from all patients on mirtocyan, proliferation was decreased by 7% compared with preintervention values. The low dose caused a small but nonsignificant reduction in circulating IGF-I concentrations. In conclusion, repeated administration of bilberry anthocyanins exerts pharmacodynamic effects and generates concentrations of anthocyanins in humans resembling those seen in ApcMin mice, a model of FAP adenomas sensitive to the chemopreventive properties of anthocyanins. Studies of doses containing <0.5 gram bilberry anthocyanins are necessary to adjudge whether they may be appropriate for development as colorectal cancer chemopreventive agents.

  J. A Ivy , A Miller , R. C Lacy and J. A. DeWoody

Zoo and aquarium breeding programs rely on accurate pedigrees to manage the genetics and demographics of captive populations. Breeding recommendations are often encumbered, however, by unknown parentage. If an individual has any amount of unknown ancestry, the relationships between that individual and all other individuals in a population are ambiguous, and breeding recommendations cannot be tailored to maximize genetic diversity and minimize inbreeding. In those situations, breeding program management might be improved by the incorporation of molecular data. We developed microsatellite markers for the parma wallaby (Macropus parma) and investigated how genetic data might be used to improve the management of the captive population. The parma wallaby is a small marsupial found in fragmented forests near the coast of New South Wales, Australia. Because the species is of conservation concern, the captive population in North America is managed by recurring breeding recommendations. The effectiveness of the population's management is hampered, however, because over half of the individuals have some amount of unknown ancestry. We used microsatellite data to resolve unknown parentage, described how molecular estimates of relatedness might inform future breeding recommendations, and used computer simulations to investigate how molecular estimates of relatedness among founders might contribute to the genetic management of the population. Our results indicated that microsatellite appraisals of parentage were useful with respect to clarifying pedigrees but that molecular assessments of founder relatedness provided very marginal benefits with regard to the preservation of genetic diversity and the avoidance of inbreeding.

  S. P Bliss , A Miller , A. M Navratil , J Xie , S. P McDonough , P. J Fisher , G. E Landreth and M. S. Roberson

Males and females require different patterns of pituitary gonadotropin secretion for fertility. The mechanisms underlying these gender-specific profiles of pituitary hormone production are unknown; however, they are fundamental to understanding the sexually dimorphic control of reproductive function at the molecular level. Several studies suggest that ERK1 and -2 are essential modulators of hypothalamic GnRH-mediated regulation of pituitary gonadotropin production and fertility. To test this hypothesis, we generated mice with a pituitary-specific depletion of ERK1 and 2 and examined a range of physiological parameters including fertility. We find that ERK signaling is required in females for ovulation and fertility, whereas male reproductive function is unaffected by this signaling deficiency. The effects of ERK pathway ablation on LH biosynthesis underlie this gender-specific phenotype, and the molecular mechanism involves a requirement for ERK-dependent up-regulation of the transcription factor Egr1, which is necessary for LHβ expression. Together, these findings represent a significant advance in elucidating the molecular basis of gender-specific regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and sexually dimorphic control of fertility.

  D. K Kinney , P Teixeira , D Hsu , S. C Napoleon , D. J Crowley , A Miller , W Hyman and E. Huang

Previous surveys found a large (>10-fold) variation in schizophrenia prevalence at different geographic sites and a tendency for prevalence to increase with latitude. We conducted meta-analyses of prevalence studies to investigate whether these findings pointed to underlying etiologic factors in schizophrenia or were the result of methodological artifacts or the confounding of sites’ latitude with level of healthcare at those sites. We found that these patterns were still present after controlling for an index of healthcare—infant mortality—and focusing on 49 studies that used similar diagnostic and ascertainment methods. The tendencies for schizophrenia prevalence to increase with both latitude and colder climate were still large and significant and present on several continents. The increase in prevalence with latitude was greater for groups with low fish consumption, darker skin, and higher infant mortality—consistent with a role of prenatal vitamin D deficiency in schizophrenia. Previous research indicates that poor prenatal healthcare and nutrition increase risk for schizophrenia within the same region. These adverse conditions are more prevalent in developing countries concentrated near the equator, but schizophrenia prevalence is lowest at sites near the equator. This suggests that schizophrenia-producing environmental factors associated with higher latitude may be so powerful they overwhelm protective effects of better healthcare in industrialized countries. The observed patterns of correlations of risk factors with prevalence are consistent with an etiologic role for prenatal vitamin D deficiency and exposure to certain infectious diseases. Research to elucidate environmental factors that underlie variations in schizophrenia prevalence deserves high priority.

  A Miller , P. L Drake , P Hintz and M. Habjan

An air quality survey was conducted at a precious metals refinery in order to evaluate worker exposures to airborne metals and to provide detailed characterization of the aerosols. Two areas within the refinery were characterized: a furnace room and an electro-refining area. In line with standard survey practices, both personal and area air filter samples were collected on 37-mm filters and analyzed for metals by inductively coupled plasma–atomic emission spectroscopy. In addition to the standard sampling, measurements were conducted using other tools, designed to provide enhanced characterization of the workplace aerosols. The number concentration and number-weighted particle size distribution of airborne particles were measured with a fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS). Custom-designed software was used to correlate particle concentration data with spatial location data to generate contour maps of particle number concentrations in the work areas. Short-term samples were collected in areas of localized high concentrations and analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to determine particle morphology and elemental chemistry. Analysis of filter samples indicated that all of the workers were exposed to levels of silver above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit of 0.01 mg m–3 even though the localized ventilation was functioning. Measurements with the FMPS indicated that particle number concentrations near the furnace increased up to 1000-fold above the baseline during the pouring of molten metal. Spatial mapping revealed localized elevated particle concentrations near the furnaces and plumes of particles rising into the stairwells and traveling to the upper work areas. Results of TEM/EDS analyses confirmed the high number of nanoparticles measured by the FMPS and indicated the aerosols were rich in metals including silver, lead, antimony, selenium, and zinc. Results of the survey were used to deduce appropriate strategies for mitigation of worker exposure to airborne metals.

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