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Articles by A Maeda
Total Records ( 3 ) for A Maeda
  T Maeda , A. V Cideciyan , A Maeda , M Golczak , T. S Aleman , S. G Jacobson and K. Palczewski

Inactivating mutations in the retinoid isomerase (RPE65) or lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) genes cause Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), a severe visual impairment in humans. Both enzymes participate in the retinoid (visual) cycle, the enzymatic pathway that continuously generates 11-cis-retinal, the chromophore of visual pigments in rod and cone photoreceptor cells needed for vision. We investigated human RPE65–LCA patients and mice with visual cycle abnormalities to determine the impact of chronic chromophore deprivation on cones. Young patients with RPE65 mutations showed foveal cone loss along with shortened inner and outer segments of remaining cones; cone cell loss also was dramatic in young mice lacking Rpe65 or Lrat gene function. To selectively evaluate cone pathophysiology, we eliminated the rod contribution to electroretinographic (ERG) responses by generating double knockout mice lacking Lrat or Rpe65 together with an inactivated rod-specific G protein transducin gene (Gnat1–/–). Cone ERG responses were absent in Gnat1–/–Lrat–/– mice which also showed progressive degeneration of cones. Cone ERG responses in Gnat1–/–Rpe65–/– mice were markedly reduced and declined over weeks. Treatment of these mice with the artificial chromophore pro-drug, 9-cis-retinyl acetate, partially protected inferior retinal cones as evidenced by improved ERGs and retinal histochemistry. Gnat1–/– mice chronically treated with retinylamine, a selective inhibitor of RPE65, also showed a decline in the number of cones that was ameliorated by 9-cis-retinyl acetate. These results suggest that chronic lack of chromophore leads to progressive loss of cones in mice and humans. Therapy for LCA patients should be geared toward early adequate delivery of chromophore to cone photoreceptors.

  T Igawa , H Tsunoda , T Tachibana , A Maeda , F Mimoto , C Moriyama , M Nanami , Y Sekimori , Y Nabuchi , Y Aso and K. Hattori

Fc engineering to increase the binding affinity of IgG antibodies to FcRn has been reported to reduce the elimination of IgG antibodies. Herein, we present a novel non-FcRn-dependent approach to reduce the elimination of IgG antibodies. Pharmacokinetic studies conducted in normal mice of various humanized IgG4 antibodies, which had identical constant regions but different variable region sequences, revealed that an antibody with a lower isoelectric point (pI) has a longer half-life. These antibodies exhibited comparable binding affinity to FcRn, and with the antibodies with lower pIs, a longer half-life was also observed in β2-microglobulin knockout mice, suggesting that differences in the pharmacokinetics were due to a non-FcRn-dependent mechanism. On the basis of our findings, we attempted to engineer the pharmacokinetic properties of a humanized anti-IL6 receptor IgG1 antibody. Selected substitutions in the variable region, without substitution in the Fc region, lowered the pI but did not reduce the biological activity and showed a significant reduction in the clearance of the antibody in cynomolgus monkey. These results suggest that lowering the pI by engineering the variable region could reduce the elimination of IgG antibodies and could provide an alternative to Fc engineering of IgG antibodies.

  H Bayir , A. A Kapralov , J Jiang , Z Huang , Y. Y Tyurina , V. A Tyurin , Q Zhao , N. A Belikova , I. I Vlasova , A Maeda , J Zhu , H. M Na , P. G Mastroberardino , L. J Sparvero , A. A Amoscato , C. T Chu , J. T Greenamyre and V. E. Kagan

Damage of presynaptic mitochondria could result in release of proapoptotic factors that threaten the integrity of the entire neuron. We discovered that -synuclein (Syn) forms a triple complex with anionic lipids (such as cardiolipin) and cytochrome c, which exerts a peroxidase activity. The latter catalyzes covalent hetero-oligomerization of Syn with cytochrome c into high molecular weight aggregates. Syn is a preferred substrate of this reaction and is oxidized more readily than cardiolipin, dopamine, and other phenolic substrates. Co-localization of Syn with cytochrome c was detected in aggregates formed upon proapoptotic stimulation of SH-SY5Y and HeLa cells and in dopaminergic substantia nigra neurons of rotenone-treated rats. Syn-cardiolipin exerted protection against cytochrome c-induced caspase-3 activation in a cell-free system, particularly in the presence of H2O2. Direct delivery of Syn into mouse embryonic cells conferred resistance to proapoptotic caspase-3 activation. Conversely, small interfering RNA depletion of Syn in HeLa cells made them more sensitive to dopamine-induced apoptosis. In human Parkinson disease substantia nigra neurons, two-thirds of co-localized Syn-cytochrome c complexes occurred in Lewy neurites. Taken together, these results indicate that Syn may prevent execution of apoptosis in neurons through covalent hetero-oligomerization of cytochrome c. This immediate protective function of Syn is associated with the formation of the peroxidase complex representing a source of oxidative stress and postponed damage.

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