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Articles by A Jain
Total Records ( 3 ) for A Jain
  P. R Murray , A Jain , G Uzel , R Ranken , C Ivy , L. B Blyn , D. J Ecker , R Sampath , C. C. R Lee and M. L. Turner

Background  Pyoderma gangrenosum–like ulcers and cellulitis of the lower extremities associated with recurrent fevers in patients with X-linked (Bruton) agammaglobulinemia have been reported to be caused by Helicobacter bilis (formerly classified as Flexispira rappini and then Helicobacter strain flexispira taxon 8). Consistent themes in these reports are the difficulty in recovering this organism in blood and wound cultures and in maintaining isolates in vitro. We confirmed the presence of this organism in a patient's culture by using a novel application of gene amplification polymerase chain reaction and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

Observation  An adolescent boy with X-linked agammaglobulinemia presented with indurated plaques and a chronic leg ulcer whose origin was strongly suspected to be an H bilis organism. Histologic analysis demonstrated positive Warthin-Starry staining of curvilinear rods, which grew in culture but failed to grow when subcultured. They could not be identified by conventional techniques. A combination of gene amplification by polymerase chain reaction and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry confirmed the identity of this organism.

Conclusions  This novel technology was useful in the identification of a difficult-to-grow Helicobacter organism, the cause of pyoderma gangrenosum–like leg ulcers in patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Correct identification of this organism as the cause of pyoderma gangrenosum–like ulcers in patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia is of great importance for the early initiation of appropriate and curative antibiotic therapy.

  A Jain , M. L Shehata , M Stuber , S. J Berkowitz , H Calkins , J. A. C Lima , D. A Bluemke and H. Tandri

Background— Although arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) predominantly affects the right ventricle (RV), genetic/molecular and histological changes are biventricular. Regional left ventricular (LV) function has not been systematically studied in ARVD.

Methods and Results— The study population included 21 patients with suspected ARVD who underwent evaluation with MRI including tagging. Eleven healthy volunteers served as control subjects. Peak systolic regional circumferential strain (Ecc, %) was calculated by harmonic phase from tagged MRI based on the 16-segment model. Patients who met ARVD Task Force criteria were classified as definite ARVD, whereas patients with a positive family history who had 1 additional minor criterion and patients without a family history with 1 major or 2 minor criteria were classified as probable ARVD. Of the 21 ARVD subjects, 11 had definite ARVD and 10 had probable ARVD. Compared with control subjects, probable ARVD patients had similar RV ejection fraction (58.9±6.2% versus 53.5±7.6%, P=0.20), but definite ARVD patients had significantly reduced RV ejection fraction (58.9±6.2% versus 45.2±6.0%, P=0.001). LV ejection fraction was similar in all 3 groups. Compared with control subjects, peak systolic Ecc was significantly less negative in 6 of 16 (37.5%) segments in definite ARVD and 3 of 16 segments (18.7%) in probable ARVD (all P<0.05).

Conclusions— ARVD is associated with regional LV dysfunction, which appears to parallel degree of RV dysfunction. Further large studies are needed to validate this finding and to better define implications of subclinical segmental LV dysfunction.

  S. J Fonda , A Jain and R. A. Vigersky


The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 3 meal replacement beverages on glycemic response among people with type 2 diabetes.


The study examined Glucerna® Weight Loss Shake, Slim-Fast® Shake, and Ensure® with Fiber Shake, using a prospective, 3-way, cross-over design. Eighteen subjects with type 2 diabetes drank the beverages in random order on different weeks. The volume of each beverage was adjusted to include 50 grams of carbohydrates. Glucose was measured 0 to 180 minutes postprandial. Analyses included 2-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures on both factors, calculation of area under the curve (AUC), and 1-way repeated measures ANOVA of AUC.


The postprandial glucose profiles of the shakes differed. Glucerna® had the best profile as indicated by the graph of mean postprandial glucose levels and its lower incremental AUC. Despite the superiority of Glucerna®, 2-hour postprandial blood glucose values exceeded the ADA’s recommended upper limit for 22% of the subjects.


Meal replacement beverages are a popular and potentially effective option for people trying to lose or maintain weight; however, it is unknown to what degrees they affect postprandial blood glucose in people with type 2 diabetes. Because postprandial glycemic excursion is linked to cardiovascular disease, identifying a meal replacement beverage with the lowest glycemic response may mitigate some of the risks in patients with diabetes. Of the meal replacements observed in this study, Glucerna® had the smallest effect on postprandial glucose. Glycemic response to meal replacements should be monitored given product and individual variability.

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