Asian Science Citation Index is committed to provide an authoritative, trusted and significant information by the coverage of the most important and influential journals to meet the needs of the global scientific community.  
ASCI Database
308-Lasani Town,
Sargodha Road,
Faisalabad, Pakistan
Fax: +92-41-8815544
Contact Via Web
Suggest a Journal
 
Articles by A Hyland
Total Records ( 5 ) for A Hyland
  M Bansal Travers , K. M Cummings , A Hyland , A Brown and P. Celestino
 

The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of specially designed educational materials to correct misperceptions held by smokers about nicotine, nicotine medications, low tar cigarettes, filters and product ingredients. To accomplish this, 682 New York State Smokers’ Quitline callers were randomized to one of two groups: control group received counseling, nicotine patches and quit smoking guide; and experimental group received counseling, nicotine patches, quit guide, plus information about cigarette characteristics mailed in a brand-tailored box. Participants were contacted 1 month later to assess knowledge about cigarettes and actions taken to alter smoking behavior. The results found that respondents in the experimental condition were more likely to report using and sharing the test materials with others compared with the control condition. Overall mean knowledge scores for the experimental group were slightly higher compared with those who received the standard materials. Knowledge of cigarette ingredients was not related to quit attempts or quitting smoking. This study found that the experimental materials were better recalled and contributed to higher levels of knowledge about specific cigarette design features; however, this did not translate into changes in smoking behavior.

  G. N Connolly , C. M Carpenter , M. J Travers , K. M Cummings , A Hyland , M Mulcahy and L. Clancy
  Introduction

The present study examined indoor air quality in a global sample of smoke-free and smoking-permitted Irish pubs. We hypothesized that levels of respirable suspended particles, an important marker of secondhand smoke, would be significantly lower in smoke-free Irish pubs than in pubs that allowed smoking.

Methods

Indoor air quality was assessed in 128 Irish pubs in 15 countries between 21 January 2004 and 10 March 2006. Air quality was evaluated using an aerosol monitor, which measures the level of fine particle (PM2.5) pollution in the air. A standard measurement protocol was used by data collectors across study sites.

Results

Overall, the level of air pollution inside smoke-free Irish pubs was 93% lower than the level found in pubs where smoking was permitted.

Discussion

Levels of indoor air pollution can be massively reduced by enacting and enforcing smoke-free policies.

  A Hyland , C Higbee , M. J Travers , A Van Deusen , M Bansal Travers , B King and K. M. Cummings
  Introduction

The present study reports on the prevalence of smoke-free homes, the characteristics of participants who adopted a smoke-free home policy, and the association between smoke-free homes and subsequent predictors of smoking cessation.

Methods

Data are reported on 4,963 individuals who originally participated in the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation between 1988 and 1993 and completed follow-up surveys in 2001 and 2005. The relationship between home smoking policy and smoking behavior was examined with a multivariate regression model.

Results

Among those who were smokers at the 2001 follow-up, the percentage reporting that no smoking was allowed in their home increased from 29% in 2001 to 38% in 2005. Smokers most likely to adopt smoke-free home policies between 2001 and 2005 were males, former smokers, and those who had lower levels of daily cigarette consumption (among those who continued to smoke), those with higher annual household incomes, and those with no other smokers in the household. Some 28% of smokers with smoke-free homes in 2001 reported that they had quit smoking by 2005 compared with 16% of those who allowed smoking in their homes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.4–2.2), and baseline quitters with smoke-free homes also were less likely to relapse (OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.4–0.8).

Discussion

Smoke-free homes are becoming more prevalent, and they are a powerful tool not only to help smokers stop smoking but also to help keep those who quit from relapsing back to smoking.

  A Van Deusen , A Hyland , M. J Travers , C Wang , C Higbee , B. A King , T Alford and K. M. Cummings
 

With the increasing normative trend of clean indoor air laws prohibiting smoking in public places such as worksites and restaurants, the home is becoming the primary source of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. However, little empirical data indicate how SHS is distributed throughout homes and whether smoking in segregated areas offers protection. This project studied real-time data on levels of SHS in 9 homes in which smoking was permitted and in 3 smoke-free homes. Active sampling monitors were used to assess levels of PM2.5, a marker for SHS, over a 3-day period. In smoking homes, one monitor was placed in the primary smoking area and another in a distal location, where smoking generally did not occur. Participants logged smoking and other activities that could affect air quality. In smoking homes, without assuming normality, the mean PM2.5 level for the primary smoking areas was statistically significantly higher than that for distal areas (84 and 63 µg/m3, respectively). Both levels far surpassed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's annual standard of 15 µg/m3 for outdoor air quality. By contrast, the smoke-free home mean was 9 µg/m3, similar to outdoor air quality. These results suggest that the air in smoking homes was several times more polluted than that in smoke-free homes, regardless of where the measurements were taken, meaning that efforts to confine smoking to only part of the home offer no protection for people anywhere inside the home. Household members can be protected by implementing a smoke-free home policy.

  A Hyland , C Higbee , R Borland , M Travers , G Hastings , G. T Fong and K. M. Cummings
  Introduction

This paper describes the varying levels of smoking policies in nationally representative samples of smokers in four countries and examines how these policies are associated with changes in attitudes and beliefs about secondhand smoke over time.

Methods

We report data on 5,788 respondents to Wave 1 of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey who were employed at the time of the survey. A cohort of these respondents was followed up with two additional survey waves approximately 12 months apart. Respondents’ attitudes and beliefs about secondhand smoke as well as self-reported policies in their workplace and in bars and restaurants in their community were assessed at all waves.

Results

The level of comprehensive smoke-free policies in workplaces, restaurants, and bars increased over the study period for all countries combined and was highest in Canada (30%) and lowest in the United Kingdom (0%) in 2004. In both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, stronger secondhand smoke policies were associated with more favorable attitudes and support for comprehensive regulations. The associations were the strongest for smokers who reported comprehensive policies in restaurants, bars, and their workplace for all three survey waves.

Discussion

Comprehensive smoke-free policies are increasing over time, and stronger policies and the public education opportunities surrounding their passage are associated with more favorable attitudes toward secondhand smoke regulations. The implication for policy makers is that, although the initial debate over smoke-free policies may be tumultuous, once people understand the rationale for implementing smoke-free policies and experience their benefits, public support increases even among smokers, and compliance with smoke-free regulations increases over time.

 
 
 
Copyright   |   Desclaimer   |    Privacy Policy   |   Browsers   |   Accessibility