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Articles by A Giacca
Total Records ( 2 ) for A Giacca
  C Xiao , A Giacca and G. F. Lewis

Prolonged elevation of plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) induces insulin resistance and impairs pancreatic β-cell adaptation to insulin resistance. Studies in rodents suggest that inflammation may play a role in this "lipotoxicity." We studied the effects of sodium salicylate, an anti-inflammatory agent, on lipid-induced alterations in β-cell function and insulin sensitivity in six overweight and obese nondiabetic men. Each subject underwent four separate studies, 4–6 wk apart, in random order: 1) SAL, 1-wk placebo followed by intravenous (iv) infusion of saline for 48 h; 2) IH, 1-wk placebo followed by iv infusion of intralipid plus heparin for 48 h to raise plasma NEFA approximately twofold; 3) IH + SS, 1-wk sodium salicylate (4.5 g/day) followed by 48-h IH infusion; and 4) SS, 1-wk oral sodium salicylate followed by 48-h saline infusion. After 48-h saline or lipid infusion, insulin secretion and sensitivity were assessed by hyperglycemic clamp and euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, respectively, in sequential order. Insulin sensitivity was reduced by lipid infusion (IH = 67% of SAL) and was not improved by salicylate (IH + SS = 56% of SAL). Lipid infusion also reduced the disposition index (P < 0.05), which was not prevented by sodium salicylate. Salicylate reduced insulin clearance. These data suggest that oral sodium salicylate at this dose impairs insulin clearance but does not ameliorate lipid-induced insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction in overweight and obese nondiabetic men.

  M. A Kiraly , J Campbell , E Park , H. E Bates , J. T. Y Yue , V Rao , S. G Matthews , G Bikopoulos , M Rozakis Adcock , A Giacca , M Vranic and M. C. Riddell

Stress-activated systems and oxidative stress are involved in insulin resistance, which, along with β-cell failure, contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Exercise improves insulin resistance and glucose tolerance, and these adaptations may, in part, be related to reductions in inflammation and oxidative stress. We investigated circulating and tissue-specific markers of inflammation and oxidative stress and insulin-signaling pathways in a rodent model of T2DM, the Zucker diabetic fatty rat, with and without voluntary exercise. At 5 wk of age, Zucker diabetic fatty rats (n = 8–9/group) were divided into basal (B), voluntary exercise (E), and sedentary control (S) groups. B rats were euthanized at 6 wk of age, and S and E rats were euthanized 10 wk later. E rats ran ~5 km/day, which improved insulin sensitivity and maintained fed and fasted glucose levels and glucose tolerance. Ten weeks of exercise also decreased whole body markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in plasma and liver, including lowered circulating IL-6, haptoglobin, and malondialdehyde levels, hepatic protein oxidation, and phosphorylated JNK, the latter indicating decreased JNK activity. Hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase levels and Ser307-phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 were also reduced in E compared with S rats. In summary, we show that, in a rodent model of T2DM, voluntary exercise decreases circulating markers of inflammation and oxidative stress and lowers hepatic JNK activation and Ser307-phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1. These changes in oxidative stress markers and inflammation are associated with decreased hyperglycemia and insulin resistance and reduced expression of the main gluconeogenic enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase.

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