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Articles by A Enomoto
Total Records ( 4 ) for A Enomoto
  A Enomoto , J Watahiki , T Yamaguchi , T Irie , T Tachikawa and K. Maki

It is well known that mastication has a significant influence on mandibular growth and development, but the mechanism behind this effect has not yet been clarified. Furthermore, no studies have examined the effects of changes in mastication on the three-dimensional (3D) morphometry of the mandible. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influences of changes in mastication on mandibular growth and morphology. Twenty-five 3-week-old (at the time of weaning) imprinting control region mice were randomly divided into three groups: mice fed a hard diet (HD), mice fed a soft diet (SD), and mice alternately fed hard and soft diets (HSDs) every week for 4 weeks. The morphometry of the mandible was analysed using 3D microcomputed tomography (µCT). Statistical analysis was undertaken using a t-test.

µCT analysis showed that the condylar width was significantly greater in the HD group than in the SD group after 1 week. After 4 weeks, mandibular length was significantly longer and ramus height was greater in the HSD group than in the other two groups. Bone volume was significantly less in the SD group than in the other two groups after 4 weeks. These findings suggest that changes in mastication markedly affect mandibular condylar cartilage growth and mandibular morphology. It is considered that dietary education at an early age is important in order to prevent disruption of the development of the mandible.

  M Mitsuki , K Nara , T Yamaji , A Enomoto , M Kanno , Y Yamaguchi , A Yamada , S Waguri and Y. Hashimoto

Siglec-7, a sialic acid binding immunoglobulin-like lectin, predominantly transduces inhibitory signals through cytosolic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs). Here, we report that clustering of Siglec-7 with a specific F(ab')2 elicited cell death. Interestingly, a truncated Siglec-7 lacking the cytosolic ITIM domain still induced the cell death, suggesting that the ITIMs are not essential for the death signaling. Further analyses of the death signaling revealed that an oxygen radical scavenger, N-acetyl cysteine, completely inhibited the cell death, whereas a pancaspase inhibitor did not. In addition, caspase-3 activation, DNA ladder formation, and nuclear condensation were not detected during the death process, suggesting that the cell death is nonapoptotic. To identify the critical region for the death signaling, we prepared a series of shuffling chimeras between Siglec-7 and Siglec-9, the latter of which did not transduce a death signal. The critical region was mapped to the middle of the membrane-proximal C2-set domain, which contained only six amino acid differences between Siglec-7 and Siglec-9. Point mutation analyses of each of these six amino acids revealed that four of the six amino acids were critical for the death signal. A computer-assisted 3D modeling revealed that these four amino acids were proximally located on the surface of the C2-set domain. In conclusion, Siglec-7 induces nonapoptotic cell death, the signal for which is transduced by an extracellular C2-set domain.

  G Muteliefu , A Enomoto , P Jiang , M Takahashi and T. Niwa

Background. Previously, we demonstrated that indoxyl sulphate (IS), a uraemic toxin, induced aortic calcification in hypertensive rats. This study aimed to determine if IS induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the expression of osteoblast-specific proteins in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs).

Methods. In order to achieve these goals, HASMCs were incubated with IS. ROS were detected using probes with a fluorescence detector. The expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteopontin and organic anion transporters (OAT1, OAT3) was studied by western blotting. The expression of core binding factor 1 (Cbfa1), ALP, osteopontin and NADPH oxidases (Nox1, Nox2 and Nox4) was analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Knockdown of Nox4 was performed by RNA interference (RNAi).

Results. IS induced ROS generation and the expression of Nox4, Cbfa1, ALP and osteopontin in HASMCs. A NADPH oxidase inhibitor and antioxidants inhibited IS-induced ROS production and mRNA expression of Cbfa1 and ALP. Knockdown of Nox4 using small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited IS-induced ROS production and mRNA expression of Cbfa1, ALP and osteopontin. OAT3 was expressed in HASMCs.

Conclusions. IS induces ROS generation by upregulating Nox4, and the expression of osteoblast-specific proteins such as Cbfa1, ALP and osteopontin in HASMCs.

  H Shimizu , D Bolati , A Adijiang , A Enomoto , F Nishijima , M Dateki and T. Niwa

Various uremic toxins accumulate in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) and one of them is indoxyl sulfate, which accelerates the progression of CRF through unknown mechanisms. The present study investigates how indoxyl sulfate promotes CRF using the proximal tubular cell line HK-2 and CRF rats. Indoxyl sulfate inhibited serum-induced cell proliferation and promoted the activation of senescence-associated β-galactosidase, a marker of cellular senescence, and the expression of -smooth muscle actin (-SMA), a marker of fibrosis, through inducing p53 expression and phosphorylation. Pifithrin-, p-nitro, a p53 inhibitor, blocked these effects. Indoxyl sulfate evoked reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine inhibited indoxyl sulfate-induced p53 expression and phosphorylation, as well as indoxyl sulfate-induced -SMA expression. We previously demonstrated that although cellular senescence and fibrosis are detectable in the kidneys of CRF rats, the oral adsorbent AST-120 repressed these effects. Here, we found that β-galactosidase, p53 and -SMA were expressed and colocalized in the renal tubules of CRF rats, whereas AST-120 decreased the expression of these genes. Taken together, these findings indicate that indoxyl sulfate induces the expression and phosphorylation of p53 though ROS production, thus inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting cellular senescence and renal fibrosis.

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