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Articles by A Bhattacharya
Total Records ( 4 ) for A Bhattacharya
  A Bhattacharya and D. B. Dunson

Statistical analysis on landmark-based shape spaces has diverse applications in morphometrics, medical diagnostics, machine vision and other areas. These shape spaces are non-Euclidean quotient manifolds. To conduct nonparametric inferences, one may define notions of centre and spread on this manifold and work with their estimates. However, it is useful to consider full likelihood-based methods, which allow nonparametric estimation of the probability density. This article proposes a broad class of mixture models constructed using suitable kernels on a general compact metric space and then on the planar shape space in particular. Following a Bayesian approach with a nonparametric prior on the mixing distribution, conditions are obtained under which the Kullback–Leibler property holds, implying large support and weak posterior consistency. Gibbs sampling methods are developed for posterior computation, and the methods are applied to problems in density estimation and classification with shape-based predictors. Simulation studies show improved estimation performance relative to existing approaches.

  A Bhattacharya , L Tang , Y Li , F Geng , J. D Paonessa , S. C Chen , M. K.K Wong and Y. Zhang

Bladder cancer is one of the common human cancers and also has a very high recurrence rate. There is a great need for agents capable of inhibiting bladder cancer development and recurrence. Here, we report that allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), an ingredient of many common cruciferous vegetables, potently inhibited the proliferation of bladder carcinoma cell lines in vitro [half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 2.7–3.3 µM], which was associated with profound G2/M arrest and apoptosis. In contrast, AITC was markedly less toxic to normal human bladder epithelial cells (IC50 of 69.4 µM). AITC was then evaluated in two rat bladder cancer models in vivo (an orthotopic model and a subcutaneous model). The orthotopic model closely mimics human bladder cancer development and recurrence. We show that a low oral dose of AITC (1 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the development and muscle invasion of the orthotopic bladder cancers but was ineffective against the subcutaneous xenografts of the same cancer cells in the same animals. This differential effect was explained by our finding that urinary levels of AITC equivalent were two to three orders of magnitude higher than that in the plasma and that its levels in the orthotopic cancer tissues were also three orders of magnitude higher than that in the subcutaneous cancer tissues. Moreover, we show that AITC is a multi-targeted agent against bladder cancer. In conclusion, AITC is selectively delivered to bladder cancer tissue through urinary excretion and potently inhibits bladder cancer development and invasion.

  A Bhattacharya , Y Li , K. L Wade , J. D Paonessa , J. W Fahey and Y. Zhang

Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which occurs in many common cruciferous vegetables, was recently shown to be selectively delivered to bladder cancer tissues through urinary excretion and to inhibit bladder cancer development in rats. The present investigation was designed to test the hypothesis that AITC-containing cruciferous vegetables also inhibit bladder cancer development. We focused on an AITC-rich mustard seed powder (MSP-1). AITC was stably stored as its glucosinolate precursor (sinigrin) in MSP-1. Upon addition of water, however, sinigrin was readily hydrolyzed by the accompanying endogenous myrosinase. This myrosinase was also required for full conversion of sinigrin to AITC in vivo, but the matrix of MSP-1 had no effect on AITC bioavailability. Sinigrin itself was not bioactive, whereas hydrated MSP-1 caused apoptosis and G2/M phase arrest in bladder cancer cell lines in vitro. Comparison between hydrated MSP-1 and pure sinigrin with added myrosinase suggested that the anticancer effect of MSP-1 was derived principally, if not entirely, from the AITC generated from sinigrin. In an orthotopic rat bladder cancer model, oral MSP-1 at 71.5 mg/kg (sinigrin dose of 9 µmol/kg) inhibited bladder cancer growth by 34.5% (P < 0.05) and blocked muscle invasion by 100%. Moreover, the anticancer activity was associated with significant modulation of key cancer therapeutic targets, including vascular endothelial growth factor, cyclin B1 and caspase 3. On an equimolar basis, the anticancer activity of AITC delivered as MSP-1 appears to be more robust than that of pure AITC. MSP-1 is thus an attractive delivery vehicle for AITC and it strongly inhibits bladder cancer development and progression.

  M. S Lustgarten , Y. C Jang , Y Liu , F. L Muller , W Qi , M Steinhelper , S. V Brooks , L Larkin , T Shimizu , T Shirasawa , L. M McManus , A Bhattacharya , A Richardson and H. Van Remmen

In vitro studies of isolated skeletal muscle have shown that oxidative stress is limiting with respect to contractile function. Mitochondria are a potential source of muscle function-limiting oxidants. To test the hypothesis that skeletal muscle-specific mitochondrial oxidative stress is sufficient to limit muscle function, we bred mice expressing Cre recombinase driven by the promoter for the inhibitory subunit of troponin (TnIFast-iCre) with mice containing a floxed Sod2 (Sod2fl/fl) allele. Mn-SOD activity was reduced by 82% in glycolytic (mainly type II) muscle fiber homogenates from young TnIFastCreSod2fl/fl mice. Furthermore, Mn-SOD content was reduced by 70% only in type IIB muscle fibers. Aconitase activity was decreased by 56%, which suggests an increase in mitochondrial matrix superoxide. Mitochondrial superoxide release was elevated more than twofold by mitochondria isolated from glycolytic skeletal muscle in TnIFastCreSod2fl/fl mice. In contrast, the rate of mitochondrial H2O2 production was reduced by 33%, and only during respiration with complex II substrate. F2-isoprostanes were increased by 36% in tibialis anterior muscles isolated from TnIFastCreSod2fl/fl mice. Elevated glycolytic muscle-specific mitochondrial oxidative stress and damage in TnIFastCreSod2fl/fl mice were associated with a decreased ability of the extensor digitorum longus and gastrocnemius muscles to produce contractile force as a function of time, whereas force production by the soleus muscle was unaffected. TnIFastCreSod2fl/fl mice ran 55% less distance on a treadmill than wild-type mice. Collectively, these data suggest that elevated mitochondrial oxidative stress and damage in glycolytic muscle fibers are sufficient to reduce contractile muscle function and aerobic exercise capacity.

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