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Total Records ( 1397 ) for
  B.O. Akinyele and
  A taxonomic study based on floral features was carried out on four Nigerian species of Aloe, namely A. schweinfurthii, A. macrocarpa var major, A. keayi and A. buettneri. At anthesis, 12 floral characters of each species were investigated using the completely randomized design. The features investigated are number of flowers per reproductive shoot, pedicel length, bract length, tepal length, filament length, style length, anther length, anther width, ovary length, ovary diameter, stigma length and stigma width. Number of flowers per reproductive shoot was counted while the other characters were measured with a ruler graduated in centimeters and millimeters. Means of counts and measurements were determined, subjected to analysis of variance and separated using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Available information provided sufficient evidence to justify the existing taxonomy of Nigerian Aloe.
 
 
 
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  Weidong Fan , Zhengchun Lin , , Youyi Li and Mingchuan Zhang
  In this paper, the flow field characteristics of over fired air (OFA) for novel low NOx pulverized coal combustion technology are studied. The research was conducted with a 300 MWe tangential firing boiler that was adapted for this technology, and a three-dimensional particle-dynamics anemometer (PDA) was employed on the model to measure the characteristics of gas flow in the burnout area and gas/particle flows under the front panel superheater. The impact of a positive offset at 15°, counter offset at 15° and design case without an offset the OFA relative to the direction of the secondary air jet in the main combustion were considered. With different OFA offsets, the deflection characteristics, the velocity and root mean square (RMS) fluctuation velocity of OFA jet are obtained, as well as the gas/particle flows characteristics under the front panel superheater. The results show that, with a positive offset, an over-large tangential circle is formed, which produces slagging and temp-bias under the panel superheater. However, with a counter offset, the OFA is sent into the center of the chamber, and the particle is forced to the water wall. Compared with the other two conditions and combined with the counterflow of primary air, OFA without an offset for the jet contains a proper tangential circle, strong inflexibility and turbulence, which prevents slagging and burn out.
 
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Mapping of Protected Forests and Cultivated Area in North Luwu South Sulawesi, Indonesia “Published in Asian Journal of Applied Sciences 9 (4): 189-195, 2016"

Author regretted that the errors by author were found into this article. Some results are reported incorrectly in the original article. Corrections are shown in bold. The original article is the result of the development of the previous article entitled “Mapping Protected and Cultivation Zone in North Luwu, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, compiled by Maru et al.24
In Materials and Methods section Page 190-191:

Addition to materials that were used in this study were Landsat image (2014)
The word “Grade” in Table 1 is changed to be Gradient
The sources of Table 1, 2, 3 and 4 in the original article are “Rahim8” changed to be Ministry of Forestry Decree6
The word “latosol” in Table 2 is changed to be Litosol
The word “hari” in Table 2 is changed to be day

In Results Page 193:

The sources of Table 5 in the original article are “Results of the data analysis, 2015,” changed to: Maru et al.25
The sources of Table 6 in the original article are: “Department of Forestry, 2016” in original article, changed to be: The result of data processing of Forest Statistics 2008-2014
The word “Luwu Utara” in the original article was changed to be: North Luwu

In Discussion page 194, In the discussion section, the following text appears “Based on analysis result which mentioned that after scored each data such as morphology, soil type and daily rainfall. Having obtanined, if in this area (North Luwu) has three zone namely protected, buffer and cultivation zone (Fig. 4, Table 5).” This should read:

“Based on the results of satellite image analysis in 2014 together with thematic map data such as morphological data, soil type and daily rainfall, indicate that in North Luwu region has three zones namely protected zone, buffer and cultivation (Fig. 4, Table 5). Changes in land use in North Luwu for 2 years from 2012 to 2014 showed no significant change. This is indicated by the results of the study by Maru et al.25 obtained through image-processing 2012.”
The word “Anonymous6” in the discussion section is changed to be Ministry of Forestry Decree6.

In Acknowledgment page 195:

The word “Enrekang” in the original article was changed to be North Luwu.

In References page 195:

The word “Anonymous” in the reference No. 6 was changed to be Ministry of Forestry Decree.

Additional references:

24. Maru, R., M.R. Abidin, Amal, I. Abbas and Suprapta, 2015. Mapping protected and cultivation zone in North Luwu, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Proceedings of the International Conference on Statistics, Mathematics, Teaching and Research, October 9-10, 2015, Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, pp: 753-760.
25. Maru, R., M. Rais, I. Silviani, Uca and Amal, 2015. Arahan pemanfaatan lahan di Kabupaten Luwu Urata. J. Sains Teknologi, 9: 81-90.
 
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  The contamination influences the corona performance of transmission line insulator strings much. In terms of the corona-originated voltage, as well as the quantity and amplitude of the corona pulses, this paper describes the experiment on the corona current at various contaminated condition and voltage. The experimental results show that the corona pulses conform to statistic rule and can be used to distinguish the fault insulators from transmission line insulator strings in the definite environmental condition. The corona probability formulas are studied out according to the results. They can be used as one of the criterions to detect the fault insulators.
 
  This study presents the optimum financial index classification model that minimizes the pattern classification risk by designing and comparing various statistical and artificial intelligence models for classifying KOSPI200 (Korea Composite Stock Price Index 200) patterns. The models used for the experiment include Logistic Regression Analysis, Discriminant Analysis, Neural Network, and the Support Vector Machine which is in the latest spotlight. The simulation was performed by designing the models that create the binary classification of the next day pattern (up/down) from the daily closing value of KOSPI200 and then comparing their performance to present the best financial index pattern classification model. The Neural Network used back propagation algorithm, and the kernel for SVM used the polynomial and RBF functions. T-test and then the logistic regression analysis were performed to select the variables in two phases. The simulation showed that SVM with RBF kernel function resulted in the lowest misclassification rate of 0.36%.
 
  We humans use the decimal code to represent numbers. Digital electronic circuits in computers and calculators use mostly the binary code. Many other special codes are used in digital electronics to represent numbers, letters, punctuation marks and control characters. A common task of decoding from machine language to decimal numbers is encoding. A very common output device to encode English decimal numbers is the seven-segment display. In this study a 12-segment display is proposed for Persian numeric characters display.
 
 
 
 
 
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  Khairandish P. , Mohraz M. , Farzamfar B. , , Abdollahi M. , Shahhosseiny MH. , Madani H. , Sadeghi B. , Heshmat R. , Gharibdoust F. and Khorram-Khorshid HR.
  Background: A new herbal drug, Setarud (IMODTM) that has been shown to have beneficial immune effects was tested to determine its acute and chronic toxicity in animals and to establish its intravenous form maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in an open-labeled phase I clinical trial.
Methods: BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice and Wistar rats were monitored for general state and biochemical markers for chronic test. At the end of chronic test, animals examined macroscopically and histologically. HIV-infected asymptomatic male patients with CD4 counts more than 200, were enrolled in the trial. Baseline dose was calculated from the 10% lethal dose (LD10) established in laboratory animal studies. Dose escalation was performed in four cohorts of 3 patients receiving IMODTM intravenously at a cohort-specific dose of 2, 4, 6.7, and 10 ml daily for 4 weeks. Patients were clinically examined at days of 1, 2, 3 and then weekly; and the safety was assessed on the basis of reports of adverse events, laboratory-test data and toxicity signs.
Results: LD50 values in acute toxicity test were 42-66 and 50-56 ml/kg in i.m. and i.p. injections, respectively. Total scores of embryotoxicity during pregnancy were significantly lower in the Setarud group (p < 0.05). Pre-implantational deaths in the Setarud group were significantly higher, but post-implantational deaths level was lower than those in the control group. Inhibition of ossification in the skeletons of the fetuses and incidence of still birth were significantly higher while body weight of new-born rats of treatment group in the first month of their lifes were lower than those of the control group.In all four cohorts, there were no major side effects or dose-limiting toxicity, except for a mild sweating and weight loss in two patients from the first group that was reversed without discontinuation of the treatment. No clinically relevant trends in laboratory test results or ECG changes were noted. No adverse effect due to IMODTM was observed at one month of follow-up. Maximum tolerated dose of IMODTM was 10 ml a day.
Conclusion: Results of this study has identified a safe dose of IMODTM that can be used in future clinical trials.
  M. J. Noordzij , D. J. Mulder , P. H. N. Oomen , T. Brouwer , , J. Jager , M. Castro Cabezas , J. D. Lefrandt and A. J. Smit
  Aims  Skin autofluorescence is a non-invasive marker of advanced glycation end product accumulation. In a previous study, skin autofluorescence correlated with and predicted micro- and macrovascular complications in Type 2 diabetes in a primary care setting. The present cross-sectional study aims to confirm the association between skin autofluorescence and diabetic complications in patients with Type 2 diabetes in a multi-centre secondary care setting.

Methods  We analysed 563 subjects with Type 2 diabetes mellitus from five Dutch hospitals.

Results  Median age was 64 years, median duration of diabetes 13 years and median HbA1c 58 mmol/mol (7.5%). Sixty-one per cent of patients had microvascular complications (38% nephropathy, 36% retinopathy, 35% neuropathy) and 42% had macrovascular complications. Median UK Prospective Diabetes Study 10-year risk for coronary events was 19%. Median skin autofluorescence was elevated compared with age-matched healthy control subjects: 2.77 (interquartile range 2.39-3.28) vs. 2.46 (2.08-2.84) arbitrary units. Skin autofluorescence was particularly increased in patients with complications: no complications, median 2.56 (2.26-2.90); microvascular complications, 2.79 (2.38-3.29); macrovascular complications, 2.85 (2.41-3.41); both micro- and macrovascular complications, 2.96 (2.56-3.60) arbitrary units, P < 0.001. Logistic regression analysis showed that age, duration of diabetes, renal function, gender, atrial fibrillation and skin autofluorescence were independently associated with macrovascular complications. Multiple regression analysis identified age, smoking, renal function, macrovascular complications and the number of microvascular complications as the determinants of skin autofluorescence.

Conclusions  This study confirms that skin autofluorescence is increased in patients with Type 2 diabetes in a secondary care setting. Skin autofluorescence was associated with macrovascular complications in patients with diabetes and this association was independent of classical risk factors.

 
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  A. Metatla , , A. Medoued , T. Bahi and I. Hadjaj
  This study presents the application of the techniques of the observer in sensorless control of inductor motor. Sensorless control requires the estimate in real time of the non measurable quantities. The observer of Luenberger and Kalman makes it possible to solve this problem thanks to the use of a model of state of the induction motor. In this research we use the model having for variables of state the current and stator flux. The technique of sensorless control using the observer of a complete nature is presented in simulation. Linear and non linear variables of Luenberger observer are also discussed in theoretical overview.
  Lawrence M. Agius and
  Evolving consequences in the genesis of failed secretory dynamics on the part of islet Beta cells indicate a full panorama of induced effects arising primarily from suppression of insulin transcription. In such an evolving scenario, the subsequent death of beta cells is a true reflection of cellular injury that redefines glucotoxicity as another aspect of the diabetic state that progresses in line with increased nonoxidative production of lipotoxins in the added context of a peripheral resistance to insulin action. Type 1 and type 2 diabetic states would constitute integral representations in evolution of a single pathogenetic pathway that directly implicates an eventual widespread death phenomenon that depletes the islet Beta cell pool as a final consequence of evolving transcription failure of the hormone. One might therefore link abnormal compensatory initial increases in insulin secretion as a marker of impaired transcription dynamics of insulin production arising largely as a direct consequence of progressive failure of insulin secretion and peripheral availability to tissues ranging from liver to skeletal muscle and heart and brain. It is the consequence of peripheral effective action of insulin that integrally converts impaired dynamics of insulin secretion to failed insulin transcription and subsequent widespread depletion of islet Beta cells
 
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  A. Teteh , , K. Aklikokou , M. Gbeassor , J. Buyse and E. Decuypere
  Effects of feed nutritive values on broiler performance are widely investigated. But, relationship between feed macronutrients’ levels and layer-type chicks (male and female) retains little attention. However, as for all developmental stages, starter diet composition may affect layer-type chick juvenile growth as well as physiological parameters. A total of 684 Hisex Brown layer-type chicks were studied. Chicks were divided, at random, into 3 groups with equal number of males and females: control, Low-Protein Diet (LP) and High Metabolisable Energy Diet (HME). During rearing period, feed intakes were recorded and chicks were weighed individually at the end of each week. Also, sample of chicks were used to weigh liver, at hatch and at 7, 14 and 56 day-old and to collect blood for glucose, total protein and triglyceride levels determination. Results indicate that layer-type chick growth rate, liver weight and feed efficiency were in following order HME > control > LP. With regard to chick sex, male chicks of HME and control diets grew better than female chicks from d 7 onward. But, in LP group, the weights of male and female chicks were comparable up to 49 d-old. At 7 d post-hatch, serum total protein and triglyceride levels of control chicks were higher than those of chicks of LP group while the levels of HME group were comparable to those of the two other groups. For total protein levels this trend lasted until 56 d of age. It can be concluded that low protein level of starter diet affects negatively feed efficiency and layer-type chick juvenile growth while high level of metabolisable energy improve feed efficiency and growth rate.
 
 
 
 
 
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  , Ahmet Guler and Hasan Alpay
  Queen honeybees of different races such as A. m. carnica, A. m. ligustica, A. m. caucasica (NEA-TKV) and A. m. caucasica (NEA-Camili) races and west Anatolia (Mu?la) and central Black Sea (Tokat) region genotypes were raised in central Anatolia (Sivas) from May to Aug in 2001. The acceptance ratio of larvae, the mating ratio, the preoviposition period, the volume of spermatheca and the number of spermatozoa in per spermatheca were investigated. In this study the significant (p<0.05 and p<0.01 respectively) differences were found among genotypes in terms of preoviposition periods and the volume of spermatecha. However, periods had significant (p<0.01, p<0.01, p<0.05 and p<0.01 respectively) effects on the acceptance rate of larvae, preoviposition period, volume of spermatheca and the number of spermatozoa. This result indicated that environment or climatic conditions had greater effects on the reproductive physiological characters of the queens than the genotypic structure. The preoviposition period of the A. m. carnica was (15.04?0.23 day) longer than those of the other genotypes. Queens could mate at the average temperatures at around 18-19EC. There were significant positive correlations between the temperature and the number of spermatozoa, whereas there were negative correlations between temperature and the volume of spermatheca, between the number of spermatozoa and the volume of spermatheca, between the preoviposition period and the number of spermatozoa in the per spermatheca.
  J. Segovia , C. Arzola , O. Ruiz , J. Salinas-Chavira , , C. Rodriguez-Muela , J. Jimenez , H. Gonzalez-Garcia and Y. Castillo-Castillo
  Two selenium sources (organic and inorganic) were evaluated using 28 Multiparous (M) and 18 Uniparous (U) ewes, of 54.8±9.4 and 39.7±5.6 kg live weight, respectively. They were randomly assigned to 2 treatments: Basal diet plus Inorganic Selenium (IS) and basal diet plus Organic Selenium, Sel-Plex 50® (OS). A split plot design in time was used; the animal was the main plot and time (lactation days) was considered as the subplot. The main plot had a 2×2 factorial structure, with 2 selenium sources (IS or OS) and 2 maturities of ewes (M or U). The subplot also had 2 levels (from birth to weaning and from lambing to 22 days after weaning). The variables were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS. Results showed no difference (p>0.05) of the main effects: Selenium source (treatment), maturity and the weight of lambs in time (lactation days), however the treatment × time interaction showed statistical difference (p<0.05) with weights of 56.8 and 57.3 kg in IS and OS, respectively at 22 days post-weaning. The maturity × time interaction was different (p<0.05) with weights of 57.6 kg for M and 56.4 kg for U, respectively at 22 days post-weaning. The lamb weight was similar (p>0.05), although weights at weaning numerically values favored inorganic selenium. In conclusion, organic selenium could improve the weight of ewes after weaning, however lamb weight tended to be higher with inorganic selenium, however this effect may be related to more lambs per ewe in organic selenium group.
  M. Kocabas , M. Kayim , , E. Can , F. Kutluyer and O. Aksu
  Some key aspects of the reproductive strategy of the brown trout Salmo trutta macrostigma (T., 1954) inhabiting Uzungol stream, Trabzon including spawning season, age at sexual maturity, fecundity and egg size have been studied between January 2009 to May 2010. The ages of the captured fish ranged from 2-8 years. Individuals were composed of 40.85% males and 37.80% females. The present investigation on the fecundity of S.t. macrostigma was carried out to estimate the average and range in the number of ova laid by individual female as well as to study the relationship of the fecundity with total length, total body weight. The mean value of absolute fecundity was 312.23±254.71 (SD) eggs/female. The regression between egg number and fish size (total length and weight) was statistically significant (p<0.05).
 
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  , H. Tissaoui , M. Bonneau , J. Bouteillon , R. Delimi and M. Molteni
  The electrochemical oxidation of cobalt and the cobalt electrode open circuit potential have been studied in the complexing aqueous cobalt chloride solutions, when the pH of the solution, the CoCl2 concentration and the temperature were changed on a large scale. The open circuit potential of an immobile cobalt disk electrode did not obey NERNST`s law. It was 0.17 to 0.2 V more positive than the Co/Co(II) equilibrium potential and close to the hydrogen electrode equilibrium potential; it increased linearly with log[CoCl2]/M and decreased with pH. The hydrogen evolution kinetics was rather slow and controlled by convective diffusion when the potential was set at a more negative potential than –1 V/SCE. CoCl2 additions did not affect this kinetics significantly for pH = 3, whereas they slowed it down for pH 3. The kinetics of the cobalt dissolution was controlled by the slow transfer of the Co(II) sp. to the solution. It was accelerated by CoCl2 or NaCl additions to the electrolyte, which increased the free Cl- sp. concentration. The dissolution of cobalt in complex aqueous chloride solutions was assumed to result either in the formation of Co(H2O)62+ or of CoCl+ sp. at the electrode surface, according to either of the two mechanisms: Co + 6 H2O => Co(H2O)62+ + 2 e, Co + Cl- => CoCl+ + 2 e. The effects of either high CoCl2 and NaCl concentrations or of the most anodic overpotentials were linked to the evolution of conductivity and viscosity of the electrolyte.
 
 
 
 
 
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  The present work examines the potential Teucrium polium L. extracts as a source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds. Total antioxidant activity, DPPH radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, metal chelating activities, reducing power, antimicrobial activity and total contents of phenolic compounds of dried T. polium samples, which extracted with chloroform and acetone were studied. The total antioxidant and the others antioxidant activities of T. polium are increased with increasing amount of sample (50-250 ?g). However, the chloroform extract of T. polium exhibited stronger antioxidant activity than the acetone extract. In the both extracts, the highest total antioxidant activity, DPPH? radical scavenging activity, metal chelating activity and total phenolic compounds were found in chloroform extract of T. Polium. In addition, the both extracts showed strong antioxidant activity comparable with -tocopherol. Antimicrobial activity of the both T. polium extracts were examined by means of disc-diffusion methods with eleven microbial species (Bacillus megaterium, Proteus vulgaris, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus brevis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium smegmatis and four fungal species (Penicillum frequentans, Fusarium equiseti, Aspergillus candidus, and Byssochlamys fulves). The both extracts were effective in inhibiting the growth of the organisms except for Escherichia coli. Antifungal activity of each of above extracts is lower than antimicrobial activity relatively.
 
  The assessor performances is a key point in a sensory evaluation. In particular, at the end of a session, a decrease of the performance can be feared. We propose to analyse this performance with various criteria: usual ones as the main product effect or the error variance; a new one measuring the perceived products variability. The performance can be then studied all along the session from two points of view: in taking into account the only products tested at a given instant (named instantaneous); in taking into account all the products tested up to a given instant (named cumulative). In the presented example, in spite of the large number of products successively tested by each assessor, the instantaneous performance of the panel show no significant deterioration. Furthermore, when the number of products tested by each assessor increases, more significant product effects can be obtained thanks to the accumulation of the amount of data. This shows that the number of products that can be reasonably studied by one assessor during one session is generally underestimated.
 
  The effects of using ascorbic acid (AA), rosemary extract (RE) and -tocopherol/ ascorbic acid mixture (T/AA) on some quality characteristics of cooked chicken patties were evaluated. On 0th , 2nd , 5th and 7th days of storage at 4?C, TBA, non-heme iron content and colour parameters were measured and flavour evaluation was performed. RE treatment showed lower lipid oxidation than other treatments. Non-heme iron content indicated no differences during storage periods and among formulations. No significant differences were recorded for L*, b* and CH values in chicken patties. In all treatments a* values decreased during the storage except samples treated with AA. On 7th day RE treatment had the highest flavour scores.
 
  The use of colour devices for research and industrial purposes has a great disadvantage, its price, this equipment is very expensive. Nowadays, digital colour imaging systems process electronic information from various sources, and a vast variety of image processing algorithms could be applied to the images. The aim of this work was to find a versatile technique to measure colour, using an inexpensive colour device (desktop scanner) for date palm. The method of Digitalization with Dark Ring (DDR method) is put forward. The images captured with the scanner were filed in TIFF format converting the space capturer sRGB to space colour CIELAB. Colour corresponding to different colour ranges during growth and maturity of the date palm has been characterized. The coefficient of simple determination (r2) for the colour co-ordinates; lightness (L*), red-green (a*) and yellow-blue (b*) were 0.942, 0.951 and 0.801 respectively. For the determination of the co-ordinate b* by means of DDR method, two different equations must be used depending whether the organoleptic maturity of the fruit has been reached or not.
 
  The present work was based on a previously reported paper by Bhamidipati & Singh (1994), whose simulate the thermal time distribution (TTD) in a continuous sterilisation process. They applied a rigorous model for the governing equations of the system, i.e. continuity equation, momentum balance, energy balance and the calculus of the sterilisation value (Fo) for a given set of design and operating variables (tube radius, tube length, external temperature). Finally, the authors analysed the thermal time distribution curves for two different values of those variables. Here, we implement an integrated model in which the thermal time distribution pattern or Fo distribution (solved using implicit finite difference method) is incorporated into an external optimisation loop, which finally gives the optimum values for the variables. The optimisation problem is a Mixed Integer non Linear Program (MINLP) that includes an objective function that is a mathematical expression directly related to final product quality and subject to constraint imposed for a request Fo value in the coldest point. We illustrate the methodology by simulating the process with several typical fluid foods and comparing alternative objective functions.
 
  In this work, an attempt has been made to evaluate the convective heat transfer coefficient operating in fruits drying in open sun drying conditions (natural convection). Convective heat transfer coefficients have been found at different initial moisture contents and at ambient temperature by determining the values of C and n for four fruits, namely plum, grape, peach and fig. Convective heat transfer coefficient for all crops is found to be exponentially increasing with moisture content. The coefficients of the exponential model have been determined by using Statistica Routine. In studying the consistency of the models developed for all fruits, some statistical tests, such as reduced 2, MBE and RMSE were also used as well as correlation coefficients. The experimental error in terms of percent uncertainty was also calculated.
 
  The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pH , arabic gum, ghatti gum and modified starch additives on stability of beverage emulsions. Stability of emulsions was determined on the basis of the characteristics of particle size of dispersed phase vs. emulsion pH and on the basis of results of emulsion time to breakage measurement. Stability of beverage emulsions with arabic gum or mixture of arabic gum and ghatti depended on pH. With the decrease of pH of emulsion in the range of 5.0 to 2.0 the decrease of stability of emulsion was observed. This dependency was not observed for emulsions stabilized by ghatti gum only.
 
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  Muyin Wang , James E. Overland , Nicholas A. Bond and
  In preparation for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) modeling centers from around the world carried out sets of global climate simulations under various emission scenarios with a total of 23 coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation models. We evaluated the models' 20th century hindcasts of selected variables relevant to several large marine ecosystems and examined 21st century projections by a subset of these models under the A1B (middle range) emission scenario. In general we find that a subset (about half) of the models are able to simulate large-scale aspects of the historical observations reasonably well, which provides some confidence in their application for projections of ocean conditions into the future. Over the North Pacific by the mid-21st century, the warming due to the trend in wintertime sea surface temperature (SST) will be 1°–1.5 °C, which is as large as the amplitude of the major mode of variability, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). For areas northwest of the Hawaiian Islands, these models projected a steady increase of 1.2 °C in summer SST over the period from 2000 to 2050. For the Bering and Barents seas, a subset of models selected on the basis of their ability to simulate sea–ice area in late 20th century yield an average decrease in sea–ice coverage of 43% and 36%, respectively, by the decade centered on 2050 with a reasonable degree of consistency. On the other hand, model simulations of coastal upwelling for the California, Canary and Humboldt Currents, and of bottom temperatures in the Barents Sea, feature a relatively large degree of uncertainty. These results illustrate that 21st century projections for marine ecosystems in certain regions using present-generation climate models require additional analysis
 
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  Parviz Sargolzaei , , Mehdi Safinezhad and Mohammad Hadi Rostami
  In this study, Adomian decomposition method, as a well-known method for solving functional equations, has been employed to solve systems of linear and nonlinear Fredholm Integral-differential equations. Theoretical considerations are discussed and convergence of the method for these systems is addressed. Some examples are presented to show the ability of the method for such systems.
 
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  Mohammad Zaidi Zakaria , Jalal, K.C.A , and Ambak M.A
  A study on length-weight relationship and relative condition lector of Sebarau, Hampala macrolepidota (Van Hasselt) was conducted at four main rivers and Dam site of Kenyir Lake, Malaysia from January 1997 to December, 1997. The overall length-weight relationship was In W = 2.884 In L - 4.216 or W = 0.0148 L2.884. The spawning periods, the length at maturity based on relative condition factor (Kn) and factors that might governed their spawning seasons have been analyzed and discussed. These might be one main spawning period that could occurred at this place probably February; the spawning period could be due to the North East Monsoon which bring heavy rain. The length at first maturity is found to be at 160 mm and their spawning season might be mostly related to the rainy seasons.
  Simeen Mansoor , F.N. Naqvi , and T. Salimullah
  Three varieties of mungbean NM 19-19, NM 20-21 and NM 121-125 were germinated to investigate the changes in activity of soluble forms of invertases with respect to their pH optima during germination and various developmental stages of leaves, flowers and pods. High alkaline invertase activity was present after 24 h of germination in all varieties and during subsequent stages of germination and it was replaced by acid invertase. Acid invertase seemed to be present in tissues undergoing rapid growth and development, where hexoses were quickly utilized and sucrose was rapidly hydrolyzed. Immature stages of leaves, flowers and pods primarily contained acid invertase but as the growth proceeded, alkaline invertase or neutral invertase were appeared alone or along with acid invertase activity. Alkaline invertase was supposed to hydrolyze the sucrose in cells of storage organ.
 
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  U. Salma , A.G. Miah , M.N. Haque , and S.S. Chanda
  An experiment was conducted over a 56 days period with 60 New zealand white crossbred post weaned young rabbits aged about 4 -5 weeks having an initial average live weight of 418-438 g whose mothers fed diets containing 13.17, 16.64 and 21.00% CP. The young rabbits were fed concentrate diets containing 16.64% CP along with ad libitum green grass (Hymenachne pseudointerrupta). According to their mother diets, they were assigned into 3 experimental groups (A, B & C) The average dry matter intake was significantly (P<0.01) higher in the rabbits of group B than group A & C. Live weight gain was significantly (P<0.01) higher in group C (16.6 g/day) than group A (8.7 g/day) and B (14.6 g/day). The young rabbits of group C converted feed to meat more efficiently than group A & B. So, it may be suggested that for better post weaned litter performance, concentrate mixtures containing 21.00% CP diet along with ad libitum green grass may be provided to rabbit does during their pregnancy and weaning period under tropical conditions.
  M. Ozdogan , K. Metin , F. Kargin , B. Birincioglu , and A. Onenc
  The effects of addition of fats to the diet on some liver and serum parameters of fattening bulls were examined in breeding conditions. Twenty-four Brown Swiss calves, average weight of 275 kg, were assigned to three groups and fed the following mixed feeds for 183 days: I, control without added fat (CON); II, 2.5% vegetable oil contained (CSO); III, 2.5% animal fat contained (TAL). In the study, the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured. The serum concentrations of total protein (TP), albumin, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea, creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and potassium and the concentration of liver glycogen and protein were determined. This study showed that both at the end of the backgrounding and the finishing period, differences for enzyme activities of AST, ALT, GGT and LDH, concentrations of TP, albumin, creatinine, Ca, P, Mg, Na and K among the groups were not statistically significant. However, glucose values were significantly higher (P< 0.05) in TAL in both periods. Urea and P were significantly lower in vegetable oil in the backgrounding period while cholesterol and tryglyceride concentrations were significantly lower with vegetable oil in the finishing period. On the other hand, feeding bulls on the diet including animal fat caused a significant increase of the liver glycogen level (P< 0.01). Liver protein was not influenced by fat addition.
  1Bob Regoli, , 2John D. Hewitt , and 3Matt DeLisi
  Juvenile delinquency is a serious social problem. For many years, criminologists have explained that children engage in delinquency for a variety of reasons (e.g., biological, psychological, sociological). These theories have led to the implementation of social policies that have had only a negligible impact on the reduction of juvenile delinquency. In this paper we further develop an alternative explanation for delinquency in the form of differential oppression theory. We argue that delinquency is the result of the gap in power and privilege between the statuses of adult and child. Delinquency is thus a product manufactured by adults. Policy recommendations for preventing juvenile delinquency are discussed.
 
  The aim of this paper is to explore key aspects of the extent and significance of the digital divide. In view of the wide-ranging importance now attached to the role of both information and of modern communications (ICTs) in the future economic development of nations, there can be little doubt of the significance of this divide. We commence, with a consideration of the terms and concepts deployed in the debate, and we report the magnitude of the divide. Then, we offer a brief survey of the general literature concerned with technological late starting as it applies to ICTs, particularly the Internet. We present the respective cases put forward by the technological optimists (3.1) and the technological pessimists (3.2). This is followed, by a commentary upon the vexed question of how the sector has influenced productivity growth, with a special focus upon what has become known as the "Solow Paradox". This background provides a platform to evaluate India`s position in the international arena that is tackled. In 5.1 we put forward the evidence of the divide. Then, in 5.2, we identify the weaknesses in the infrastructure. This is followed by an attempt to contrast the performance of the software and the hardware sub-sectors. Government policy towards ICTs is considered in 5.4, and we end by providing an overall perspective, we reflect upon the divide within the country itself, although the database is still inadequate. In 6.1 we examine inter-state differences, and in 6.2, the focus shifts to the urban-rural divide. Then, in 6.3 we pass comment upon how rural exclusion is being tackled. Finally, we present our general conclusions.
 
  In this study an attempt has been made to see the level, trends and differentials of fecundability among Bangladeshi women. The study has observed the marked differentials of fecundability among Bangladeshi women according to their different background characteristics. This study reveals that the women with higher education have lower mean conception delay and higher fecundability than the women with primary or no education. The analysis shows that rural women remarkably have lower mean fecundability than their urban counterparts and the well-nourished females have higher mean fecundabilities than the male-nourished females. The trend analysis shows that fecundability is higher in the recent past than at some distant point of time. Interdependence analysis between age at marriage and marital duration illustrates that the fecundability of the first married women in Bangladesh decreases with increasing marriage duration when the age at marriage is controlled. Finally, the multivariate analysis through the Cox`s proportional Hazard Regression model shows that the respondent age at first marriage, age at first conception, marital duration, type of place of residence, education level and weight are found to have statistically significant association with the marriage to first conception interval.
 
  Bangladesh is one of the poorest countries of the world. Over 52% of its population lives under the poverty line. Almost 60 million people are identified as poor people by Bangladesh standards. So, Poverty is pervasive in Bangladesh. Among the poor the most vulnerable are those who live in villages. The NGOs have been playing a signification role in changing the socio-economic condition of hard-core rural poor at grass root level across the county. But do they reach the poor? What services do they provide and how much does it help in alleviating poverty of the rural poor? This article attempts to answer these questions and tries to see whether NGOs in Bangladesh can make a change in the lives of the millions of poor in Bangladesh.
 
  In this paper an attempt is made to explore the current and future mortality trends in South Asian countries, 1980-2040s, using data from the different published surveys. Mortality transitions started in South Asian countries due to the demographic change. Using stepwise regression technique it is found that the factors crude birth rate, crude death rate and Total fertility rate have negative effect and median age has positive effect on expectation of life at birth.
 
  The capital market is visualised as a tool for economic development through mobilisation of scattered resources and their allocation to appropriate areas. The liquidity, solvency and efficiency of the economic system of a country can be better accomplished by capital market, when the banks and financial institutions of the country are reluctant to provide long-term and medium term resources for industrialisation and privatisation. Banks have been traditionally major sources of all types of credits particularly industrial credits. Not only the banks these days are restricted to finance long-term credits due to short-term nature of the deposit- base of these banks, but also are struggling to overcome their liquidity problems. On the other hand, the development of financial institutions, the traditional suppliers of the long-term funds for private industry, is lying dormant due to the problems of profitability, liquidity and solvency of these institutions. Under this circumstances, the capital market beckons as the only major source of finance for industrialisation and privatisation. But the existing state of the capital market is hardly in a position to play as the mobiliser of resources for economic development. Therefore, the country`s capital market needs structural change as well as proper regulation which are likely to improve the confidence of investors-both local and foreign and to boost the functions of capital market as well. The major regulators in Bangladesh capital market are Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), Stock Exchanges, Registrar of Joint Stock Companies (RJSC) and ICB. In addition, the government has recently given permission to set up merchant banks to provide their support towards the growth, development and consolidation of capital market.
 
  Pest management is one of the major area of concern for sustainable development in agriculture in the developing countries. There are various studies that estimated the huge global harvest losses due to pests and effective pest control is thereby of much important to ensure the reality of the attainable production. At present, developing countries are using from a long days and is to use, a significant categories of pesticide chemicals to check this which is proved to be environmentally unsound, productivity hampering in the long run. The industrialist world already has changed their way of pest control from mere the chemical uses although the developing world is far away from that. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is seen as the way forward to achieve sustainable agricultural production with less damage to the environment. It is often seen as to curb pest-leaded damages to agricultural production by simply treating these with alternative measures other than chemical uses. This study, in this context, attempts to inquiry the nature and scope of using IPM mode of pest control and its prospects in the developing countries aiming sustainable agricultural development.
 
  Inability to manage the unintended consequences affects the success of developmental programmes and often leads to conflict. The need to document intended and unintended consequences to ensure effective management and avoid conflict afterwards necessitated this study. The study therefore determined the social impact of limestone exploitation in limestone belt of Ogun State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain information from 160 respondents on their views on the perceived social impact of limestone exploitation. Results indicate that respondents perceive that agriculture and agriculture related income generating activities will be affected by the exploitation, while more people are expected to work as factory workers, artisans, traders and hawkers. Infrastructure and employment are expected to achieve positive change while factors such as incidence of conflict, crime rate, traffic hazards and conservation of wildlife species are expected to be threatened. Efforts to avoid conflict and maintain security will thus make the gains of limestone exploitation in the area to be sustainable.
 
 
  Gisele Kouakou-Siransy , Sevser Sahpaz , G. Irie Nguessan , Jacques Yao Datte , Jerome Kablan Brou , , Bernard Gressier and Francois Bailleul
  The ability of Alchornea cordifolia (Schum. and Thonn.) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) leaves to inhibit human neutrophil elastase (HNE) and superoxide anion (O2•–) activities was evaluated on aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts as they allow for a targeted extraction of polyphenols. The direct effect of A. cordifolia extracts on HNE and O2•– was assessed in an acellular system. Results showed that extracts scavenge HNE and O2•– in a dose-dependent manner. Better activity was exhibited by the ethyl acetate extract with lower IC50 (2.2 and 4. 1 mg/L for HNE and O2•–, respectively) than for the aqueous extract. Cellular systems including isolated human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) were investigated to assess the effect of extracts on PMN metabolism. PMN were stimulated with 4β-phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), calcium ionophore (CaI), or N-formyl-methionyl-leucine-phenylalanine (fMLP), each stimulant having its own stimulation pathway. From the IC50 obtained, it can be concluded that A. cordifolia reduces HNE and O2•– liberation. Furthermore it was demonstrated that A. cordifolia extracts have no cytotoxic activity on PMN by measuring release of the cytosolic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase. As the ethyl acetate extract offers a higher rate of total phenols than the aqueous extract as well as better scavenging activity, it can be supposed that polyphenols, which are well known for their potent antioxidant and antielastase activity, are implicated in the activity of the plant. Phenolic substances such as quercetin, myricetin-3-glucopyranoside, myricetin-3-rhamnopyranoside, and proanthocyanidin A2 were identified in the ethyl acetate extract. In conclusion, the study provides proof of ethnomedical claims and partly explains the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory action of A. cordifolia leaves.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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