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Toxicological Sciences

Year: 2009  |  Volume: 109  |  Issue: 2  |  Page No.: 336 - 349

Comparative Analysis of Novel Noninvasive Renal Biomarkers and Metabonomic Changes in a Rat Model of Gentamicin Nephrotoxicity

M Sieber, D Hoffmann, M Adler, V. S Vaidya, M Clement, J. V Bonventre, N Zidek, E Rached, A Amberg, J. J Callanan, W Dekant and A. Mally


Although early detection of toxicant induced kidney injury during drug development and chemical safety testing is still limited by the lack of sensitive and reliable biomarkers of nephrotoxicity, omics technologies have brought enormous opportunities for improved detection of toxicity and biomarker discovery. Thus, transcription profiling has led to the identification of several candidate kidney biomarkers such as kidney injury molecule (Kim-1), clusterin, lipocalin-2, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (Timp-1), and metabonomic analysis of urine is increasingly used to indicate biochemical perturbations due to renal toxicity. This study was designed to assess the value of a combined 1H-NMR and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) metabonomics approach and a set of novel urinary protein markers for early detection of nephrotoxicity following treatment of male Wistar rats with gentamicin (60 and 120 mg/kg bw, sc) for 7 days. Time- and dose-dependent separation of gentamicin-treated animals from controls was observed by principal component analysis of 1H-NMR and GC-MS data. The major metabolic alterations responsible for group separation were linked to the gut microflora, thus related to the pharmacology of the drug, and increased glucose in urine of gentamicin-treated animals, consistent with damage to the S1 and S2 proximal tubules, the primary sites for glucose reabsorption. Altered excretion of urinary protein biomarkers Kim-1 and lipocalin-2, but not Timp-1 and clusterin, was detected before marked changes in clinical chemistry parameters were evident. The early increase in urine, which correlated with enhanced gene and protein expression at the site of injury, provides further support for lipocalin-2 and Kim-1 as sensitive, noninvasive biomarkers of nephrotoxicity.

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