The Impact of Stress on Cardiovascular Disease in Pre- and Post-Menopausal Women
Cardio Vascular Disease (CVD) is the number one killer and leading cause of disability among women in most of the developed countries. Several epidemiological studies indicate that women during the fertile age have a lower risk of cardiac events and the female hormone estrogen provides this natural protection. Usually, the protection fades after menopause and this risk increases gradually in the five to ten years after the female hormone estrogen begins to dwindle. Hence, postmenopausal women leaving with untreated risk factors make them vulnerable to develop myocardial infarction, heart failure and sudden cardiac death. In addition, several recently published articles have shown the effect of stress on cardiovascular system and in pathogenesis of myocardial infarction and myocardial ischemia. Moreover, the effect of stress on estrogen level has also been supported by some recently published articles. For these reasons, in this review the possible links among stress, estrogen and CVD in women have been described.
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