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Turkish Journal of Botany
Year: 2008  |  Volume: 32  |  Issue: 5  |  Page No.: 367 - 380

The Geophytic Flora of Sanliurfa Province, Turkey

Ismail EKER, Mehmet KOYUNCU and Hasan AKAN    


This study was carried out between 2001 and 2004 to determine the geophytic flora of Sanliurfa, located within C6, C7, and C8 of the grid system in Turkey. In all, 789 plant specimens that consisted of 104 taxa belonging to 13 families and 30 genera were gathered from the investigation area. Of all the collected specimens, 19 taxa were new records for C6, C7, and C8, and 11 taxa were endemic to Turkey.

Scilla mesopotamica Speta, which was first collected from Sanliurfa-Halfeti in 1888 by Sintenis and was considered a missing species, was rediscovered after 116 years during this study. Colchicum crocifolium Boiss. was also determined as a new record for Turkey.

According to floristic regions, Irano-Turanian elements ranked first among the specimens, accounting for 47.12%, followed by Mediterranean elements (25.00%) and Euro-Siberian elements (0.96%). Some of the identified species (26.92%) were widespread and of unknown phytogeographic origin. In addition, 86.54% of the collected taxa were determined to be monocotyledons and the remaining (13.46%) were dicotyledons.

The families with the most taxa in the research area were Liliaceae (59) and Iridaceae (14). Concerning the number of species, the major genera in this region were as follows: Allium L. (17), Ornithogalum L. (10), Gagea Salisb. (9), Bellevalia Lapeyr. (6), and Iris L. (6). Moreover, of all collected taxa, 57.69% were bulbous, 21.15% were tuberous, 17.31% were cormous, and 3.85% were rhizomous. Concerning flowering time, 93.27% of the taxa bloomed in early-spring and spring, while 6.73% bloomed in autumn.

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