Operational radiation protection in synchrotron light and free electron laser facilities
J. C Liu,
S. H Rokni
The third-generation synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities are storage ring-based facilities with many insertion devices and photon beamlines, and have low injection beam power, but extremely high stored beam power. The fourth-generation X-ray free electron laser (FEL) facilities are based on an electron Linac with a long undulator and have high injection beam power. Due to its electron and photon beam characteristics and modes of operation, storage ring and photon beamlines have unique safety aspects, which are the main subjects of this paper. The shielding design limits, operational modes and beam losses are reviewed. Shielding analysis (source terms and methodologies) and interlocked safety systems for storage ring and photon beamlines (including SR and gas bremsstrahlung) are described. Specific safety issues for storage ring top-off injection and FEL facilities are discussed. Operational safety programme elements, e.g. operation authorisation, commissioning, training and radiation measurements, for SR facilities are also presented.