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Research Journal of Medicinal Plants
Year: 2016  |  Volume: 10  |  Issue: 8  |  Page No.: 443 - 449

Phytochemical Investigation and Antimicrobial Activities of Jordanian Psidium guajava Raw Fruit Peel Extract using Soxhlet and Microwave Extraction Methods

Reem A. Issa,, Wamidh H. Talib and Maha Habash    

Abstract: Background: This study was undertaken to evaluate the phytochemical composition of the aqueous extract obtained from Jordanian premature Psidium guajava fruit peel (PGFP) and their antimicrobial effect, using two different methods for extraction. Materials and Methods: Two different methods for extraction were used: Microwave Integrated Soxhlet (MIS) extraction and Conventional Soxhlet (CS) extraction. The TLC analysis was used to optimize each extraction method and for the preliminary phytochemical screening. The HPLC-MS/MS was used for the identification and the quantification of the phenol compounds in the plant. The antimicrobial activity of both aqueous PGFP extracts was measured using micro-titer plate dilution method. Results: Four phenol compounds were identified in the MIS extract, of which ascorbic acid showed the major constituent, while six phenol compounds were identified in the CS extract, of which ellagic acid was the major constituent. Moreover, the MIS extract contained higher levels of total phenol compounds compared to the CS extract. According to the antimicrobial assay, the two extracts of PGFP showed inhibitory activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of MIS extract against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Propioni bacterium acnes and Bacillus cereus was twice less than the values obtained from the CS extract, except for S. aureus, where the two extracts were equally active. Conclusion: Optimization of the extraction method used is required in order to increase the content of the polar portion in the extract, which showed to have the highest antimicrobial activity. These data can be utilized in developing combined remedies composed of synthetic antibiotics with phytochemicals obtained from P. guajava peel extracts, which can be used for different purposes; such as functional food development and in food preservative.

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