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Research Journal of Environmental Sciences
Year: 2007  |  Volume: 1  |  Issue: 5  |  Page No.: 211 - 219

Determination of Pollutant Levels in Water of River Challawa and in Tap Water from Kano Industrial Area, Kano State, Nigeria

J.C. Akan, V.O. Ogugbuaja, F.I. Abdulrahman and J.T. Ayodele    

Abstract: Concentration of dissolved copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), as well as pH, redox potential (Eh), dissolved oxygen (DO), Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), temperature, nitrate, sulphate and phosphate were determined in River Challawa and tap water from Challawa, Sharada and Bompai industrial areas, Kano State, Nigeria. Samples were collected for a period fifteen weeks. River Challawa is the main water supply source for Kano town and numerous industries within this area. Apart from being a source of water supply, it serves as a sink for industrial and municipal wastes. These parameters were simultaneously monitored. Physico-chemical examination revealed that the levels of pH (6.81±0.10 to 10.23±0.32), Eh (-46.3±1.34 to -87.2±1.54 mV), TDS (40.3±3.24 to 70.1±8.40 mg L-1), temperature (8.2±0.14 to 12.8±0.24°C), sulphate (22.6±0.21 to 43.5±0.31 mg L-1) and nitrate (1.11±0.02 to 4.04±0.03 mg L-1) in River Challawa and tap water from Challawa, Sharada and Bompai industrial areas were below the maximum permissible limits set by WHO and Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) Nigeria for drinking water and aquatic ecosystem. Concentration of heavy metals; Cu, Co, Zn, Fe, Pb, Mn and Cr in River Challawa were significantly above the maximum allowable levels set by United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and WHO levels for drinking water and for protection of aquatic ecosystem, while for tap water the concentration of heavy metals were within safe limits. The levels of DO and phosphate in River Challawa exceeded the FEPA tolerance limits for drinking water and water meant for domestic uses. This may have deleterious effect on aquatic ecosystem and the health of the rural dwellers that use the river water directly for domestic purposes without treatment.

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