Levels of Cadmium, Lead and Zinc in Urine of Randomly Selected Smokers and Non-Smokers Residents of Abeokuta City, Nigeria
Urine samples of 200 male volunteers comprising 100 smokers and 100 non-smokers were analysed for levels of heavy metals using Perkin-Elmer atomic Absorption spectrophotometer model 4600. The levels of Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) in urine samples of non-smokers ranged from 0.34-0.65, 0.037-0.25 and 0.235-0.664 µg mL-1, respectively while the corresponding range for smokers were 0.075-0.341, 0.076-0.297 and 0.488-1.976 µg mL-1. Most smokers respondents had metal concentrations that exceeded the normal urinary levels for each metal. For the non-smokers in age groups 10-19, 20-29, 30-39 and 40-49, the average urinary excretion values of 0.046, 0.050, 0.054 and 0.051 µg Cd mL-1; 0.152, 0.101, 0.094 and 0.138 µg Pb mL-1; 0.433, 0.515, 0.551 and 0.561 µg Zn mL-1 were respectively obtained, while for the smokers in age group 10-19, 20-29, 30-39 and 40-49, the average urinary excretion values of 0.110, 0.207, 0.216 and 0.330 µg Cd mL-1; 0.145, 0.183, 0.203 and 0.182 µg Pb mL-1; 0.563, 1.145, 1.089 and 1.718 µg Zn mL-1 were obtained. Regression analysis show that a significant correlation (r>0.9) exist between metal concentration (Cd and Zn) and duration of smoking period.