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Plant Pathology Journal
Year: 2018  |  Volume: 17  |  Issue: 2  |  Page No.: 80 - 86

Mycoflora Analysis and Other Measured Parameters of Sorghum Seeds Collected from Puerto Rico and Mexico

Louis Kajac Prom, Hugo Cuevas, Thomas Isakeit, Ramasamy Perumal and Saradha Erathaimuthu    

Abstract: Background and Objective: Grain mold is one of the major biotic constraints to sorghum production worldwide. This disease complex is associated with many genera of fungi, including mycotoxigenic Fusarium species. Yield losses can be high, especially when susceptible lines are planted in areas with wet conditions later in the growing season. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of fungal genera/species contaminating sorghum seeds, grain mold severity, seed weight and germination rate. Materials and Methods: During the 2016 and 2017 growing seasons, 62 sorghum lines were collected from Puerto Rico and Mexico. Panicles from these locations were threshed and the seed samples were put in separate paper bags and stored at 7°C in a refrigerator in the laboratory. Seed samples were evaluated for grain mold severity, seed mycoflora, seed weight and germination rate. Results: In Isabela, Puerto Rico, Fusarium thapsinum was the dominant fungal species isolated from sorghum grain, followed by Aspergillus spp. and F. semitectum in 2016 and 2017, F. semitectum was the most frequently isolated fungal species. In Guayanilla, Puerto Rico and Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, FIESC (Fusarium incarnatum, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti and F. semitectum Complex) were the dominant species isolated from sorghum seed samples. Among the sorghum lines evaluated for grain mold severity, KS-963 collected from Guayanilla, Puerto Rico, exhibited a moderate resistance response to grain mold, while the other sorghum lines were either moderately susceptible or susceptible. Across locations, KS-835 exhibited the highest seed weight (4.7 g) while PI534152 exhibited the lowest seed weight (1.0 g). Germination rates ranged from 100-0% among the sorghum lines surveyed. Conclusion: While F. thapsinum, F. nygamy and C. lunata are considered the most common grain molding species, the frequency of recovery of these three fungal species in some sorghum growing regions, including locations surveyed in this study, may be low. Thus, in grain mold resistance studies, selecting the most dominant fungal species in a sorghum growing region and using them as inocula in either the field or greenhouse is more practical and beneficial.

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