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Plant Pathology Journal
Year: 2013  |  Volume: 12  |  Issue: 2  |  Page No.: 61 - 70

Antibacterial Activity of Some Invasive Alien Species Extracts Against Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) Bacterial Wilt Caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith)

Derib Alemu, Fikre Lemessa, Mulatu Wakjira and Gezahegn Berecha    

Abstract: Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is one of the most widely grown vegetables in the world including Ethiopia. However, its production is constrained by different abiotic and biotic factors. Among biotic factors, bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important pathogens, threatening the production of tomato and potato in Ethiopia. So far there is no single means that would totally manage the disease and provide an absolute cure or fully protect host plants against the pathogen. Hence it is important to look for alternative mechanisms of disease management that can be used as an integrated disease management scheme. This study was, therefore, initiated with the objectives of evaluating the antibacterial activities of aqueous and solvent (acetone and methanol) extracts of five invasive alien species (Eichhorina crassipes, Mimosa diplotricha, Lantana camara and Prosopis juliflora) against R. solanacearum. In vitro antibacterial test was carried out in disc diffusion sensitivity test in a completely randomized design with three replications. It is evident from the result that most of the plant extracts exhibited significant inhibition of the bacterial growth compared with the control. Aqueous extract of E. crassipes provided the highest inhibition zone (26 mm), followed by M. diplotricha (14 mm). After in vitro screening, four promising invasive alien species extracts (aqueous extracts of E. crassipes, M. diplotricha, L. camara and methanolic extract of P. juliflora) with inhibition diameter>10 mm were selected and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration was assessed in vitro. They were also evaluated on tomato plants by applying the botanicals at three time of application (at the time of inoculation and 2-days before and after inoculation). The result of current study revealed that most of the treatment combinations significantly reduced percent disease severity index, but the inhibitory activities of tested plant species were reliant on type of plant species and their application time. More than 91% reduction in percent severity index of bacterial wilt was observed in tomato plants treated with leaf extract of E. crassipes when it was applied at a time of inoculation. The result suggested a need to continue research on invasive alien species extracts and determine their active principles to develop environmentally friendly management approach against bacterial wilt of tomato.

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