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Pakistan Journal of Nutrition

Year: 2019  |  Volume: 18  |  Issue: 3  |  Page No.: 260 - 263

Adenine, Guanine, Xanthine and Hypoxanthine Content in Various Indonesian Foods

Kesuma Sayuti, Rina Yenrina, Cesar Welya Refdi and Prima Yaumil Fajri


Background and Objective: Adenine, guanine, xanthine and hypoxanthine (inosine) are purine bases. Hyperuricemia results if blood uric acid levels are higher than normal. Arthritis or gout will occur if the blood uric acid concentration is high, causing the deposit of uric acid crystals. Each purine base has a different effect on the kidney and can increase the uric acid levels or the formation of crystals. The aim of this study was to determine the total purine, adenine, guanine, xanthine and hypoxanthine contents in various Indonesian foods as a reference for food menu preparation for hyperuricemia sufferers. Materials and Methods: Total purine and purine base amounts were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a Hitachi Gel 43013-N column with a 4×150 mm column length and a 260 nm Ultra Violet detector. Results: The highest total purine content in animal source foods was found in chicken intestine, followed by cow intestine and goat intestine. For plant source foods, the highest purine content was found in string beans, followed by cauliflower and soybeans. The highest hypoxanthine content in animal source foods was observed in beef, followed by cow intestine and goat intestine. The highest adenine content was observed in chicken intestine, followed by goat intestine and cow lung. The plant source foods with the highest hypoxanthine contents were cauliflower, followed by soybeans and jengkol. The highest adenine contents were found in string beans, cauliflower and melinjo leaves. Processing decreased the purine content of foods. Conclusion: Foods that contain high levels of purine, such as chicken intestine, cow intestine, goat intestine, string beans, cauliflower and soybeans, should be avoided or reduced in the diets of people with hyperuricemia. Processing can be a solution to reduce the purine content in foods.

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