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Pakistan Journal of Nutrition

Year: 2013  |  Volume: 12  |  Issue: 10  |  Page No.: 943 - 948

Comparisons of Nutrient Contents and Nutritional Values of Palm Kernel Cake Fermented by Using Different Fungi

Yose Rizal, Nuraini, Mirnawati and Maria Endo Mahata

Abstract

An experiment has been conducted to compare the nutrient contents and nutritional values of palm kernel cake (PKC) from different fermentation processes. This experiment was designed in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with six treatments and five replicates. Treatments were A = unfermented PKC (control), B = fermented PKC with Neurospora crassa, C = fermented PKC with Penicillium sp., D = fermented PKC with Trichoderma harzianum, E = fermented PKC with Aspergillus niger and F = fermented PKC with Aspergillus niger+humic acid. Measured variables were nutrient contents (crude protein, crude fiber and ether extract) and nutritional values (nitrogen retention, crude fiber digestibility and metabolizable energy) of fermented and unfermented PKCc. Results of experiment indicated that the crude fiber content of fermented PKCs was very significantly lower (p<0.01) than that of control, but there was no difference (p>0.05) among the fermented PKCs. Fermentation with different fungi increased (p<0.05) the crude protein content of PKCs when it was compared with control. The crude protein content of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus niger+humic acid fermented PKCs were significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of Trichoderma harzianum, Neurospora crassa, or Penicillium sp., fermented PKCs or control. The ether extract content of PKC was very significantly affected (p<0.01) by treatments. Aspergillus niger+humic acid, Neurospora crassa and Aspergillus niger fermented PKCs possessed the lower ether extract content (p<0.05) than that of Penicillium sp., or Trichoderma harzianum fermented PKCs, or control. The crude fiber digestibility of Aspergillus niger or Aspergillus niger+humic acid fermented PKCs was very significantly higher (p<0.01) than that of Penicillium sp., Trichoderma harzianum, Neurospora crassa fermented PKCs, or control. The nitrogen retention of Aspergillus niger+humic acid fermented PKC was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of Penicillium sp., Neurospora crassa fermented PKCs, or control, but was not differed (p>0.05) from that of Trichoderma harzianum or Aspergillus niger fermented PKCs. The fermentation with different fungi improved (p<0.05) the metabolizable energy content of PKC. Thus, the improvement of the nutrient contents and nutritional values of Aspergillus niger fermented PKC was better than the other treatments.

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