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Pakistan Journal of Nutrition

Year: 2013  |  Volume: 12  |  Issue: 5  |  Page No.: 460 - 467

Dietary Intakes of Urban Adolescents of Sialkot, Pakistan Do Not Meet the Standards of Adequacy

Rifat-uz- Zaman, Zafar Iqbal and Usman Ali


There is paucity of national data on dietary intakes of adolescents in Pakistan presently. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the dietary intake and nutritional status of urban adolescents in a cross-sectional descriptive survey. A convenience sample of 328 high school students (46.67% female and 53.33% male; mean age, 14.3 years) in Sialkot, Pakistan was analyzed by a demographic questionnaire with lifestyle and health-related questions and kept a 3-day food record for evaluation of dietary intake. Anthropometric measurements, including body composition, were performed. Female adolescents had significantly lower total energy intake than male adolescents (P<0.001); however, percentage of killocalorie distribution of protein (12.5%), carbohydrate (51.5%) and fat (36.3%) was similar between male and female adolescents. Male participants had significantly higher micronutrient intakes than female adolescents while female consumed more caffeine than male participants. Both male and female did not meet the estimated average requirements and/or adequate intakes for vitamins A, C, D and E, calcium, potassium and magnesium, whereas more than 70% of female adolescents did not meet the recommendations for vitamin A, D, E, folic acid, phosphorus, zinc and approximately 44% of them did not meet the estimated average requirements for vitamin C, sodium, potassium, iron and manganese. Dietary intake among Pakistani high schools student population intakes in many macro- and micro-minerals, especially in female adolescents, do not meet the standards of adequacy and it reflects the inadequate dietary intake and eating patterns compared with adolescents in other countries.

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