Hematological and Mineral Profiles of Reproductive Failure of Exotic Breed Cattle in Payakumbuh, West Sumatra, Indonesia
Yulianti Fitri Kurnia,
Background and Objective: Female exotic breed cattle raised by traditional small farms are susceptible to reproductive disturbances that result in failure or delay to produce calves. The present research investigated the hematologic profiles of exotic breed cattle having reproductive troubles versus heifers and pregnant cows raised by small farms. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted to identify the reproduction performance of 160 female Simmental cows raised at 15 smallholders in Payakumbuh, West Sumatra, Indonesia. Samples of blood were collected from 15 female Simmentals comprised of three different reproductive statues (heifers, pregnant and reproductive failure, n = 5 animals each). Blood plasma was then separated and analyzed for hematological parameters [hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit, red and white blood cell, mean corpuscular Hb concentration], total protein and mineral content (Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn). Samples of fodder feed were collected from 15 farms for determination of dominant species and mineral composition. Data were statistically analyzed in a completely randomized 3×5 design for blood parameters and 4×3 design for forage minerals. Results: About one-third of female cows found to have reproductive problems. Anestrus was found to be the most important causal factor for reproductive failure, followed by postpartum infertility (poor fertilization). The reproductive failure group had significantly lower (p<0.05) Hb levels, hematocrit, red and white blood cell and protein but higher mean corpuscular Hb concentration. Considering the critical levels in the blood and feed, the animals were deficient in protein, Ca, P, Mn and Cu. Conclusion: Anestrus and repeated insemination were found to be the major causes of reproductive disorders in exotic breed cattle under small farm conditions that results in delay or failure to produce calves. Reproductive disturbances in Simmental cows were most likely associated with nutrient deficiencies.
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