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Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences
Year: 2014  |  Volume: 17  |  Issue: 6  |  Page No.: 751 - 767

Emergence of Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus and its Variants Need Better Diagnosis, Prevention and Control Strategies: A Global Perspective

Kuldeep Dhama, Shambhu Dayal Singh, Rajamani Barathidasan, P.A. Desingu, Sandip Chakraborty, Ruchi Tiwari and M. Asok Kumar    

Abstract: Growth in poultry sector is being challenged due to increased incidence and re-emergence of diseases caused due to evolution of several viral pathogens and use of live vaccines. Piles of economic losses are encountered due to these diseases. Avian Infectious Bronchitis (IB), caused by Corona virus, is OIE-listed disease and characterized by respiratory, renal and urogenital involvements, causing high mortality. Economic losses are encountered due to loss of productive performance of both egg and meat-type chickens. Variant viruses evolve due to spontaneous mutations and recombinations, causing disease in vaccinated flocks of all ages. Serotyping and genotyping are the common methods of classification of IBV strains. The virus has 4 clusters, grouped into 7 serotypes and the most important strains are Massachusetts, Connecticut, Arkansas, Gray, Holte and Florida along with numerous others, distributed round the globe. Several conventional and molecular diagnostic methods have been described for the diagnosis of IB in chickens. 'All-in/all-out' operations of rearing along with good biosafety measures forms the basis of prevention, whereas vaccination forms the backbone of IB control programme. Both live and inactivated (oil emulsified) conventional vaccines are available. The new generation vaccines (recombinant and vector-based) developed against locally prevailing IBV strains may be more helpful and avoid the reversion of virulence in live vaccine viruses. The present review deals with all these perspectives of this important emerging poultry pathogen.

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