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Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences
Year: 2008  |  Volume: 11  |  Issue: 19  |  Page No.: 2320 - 2325

The Prevalence of Autoimmune Diabetes Among Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Kumasi, Ghana

M.T. Agyei-Frempong, F.V.K. Titty, W.K.B.A. Owiredu and B.A. Eghan    

Abstract: This study investigate the occurrence and the prevalence of autoantibodies and the metabolic characteristics of autoimmune and antibody-negative type 2, diabetes in recently diagnosed diabetes mellitus patients in Kumasi, Ghana. This study involved a total of 120 recently diagnosed (< 1 year) Ghanaian diabetes mellitus patients (17 insulin-requiring and 103 non insulin-requiring) and 60 controls. A standardized questionnaire was used. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were taken. Fasting glucose, lipid and lipoprotein concentrations were measured by enzymatic methods and HbA1C levels by agglutination test. Serum insulin level and autoantibodies (ICA, GAD ab and IAA) were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Out of the 17 insulin-requiring, six were positive for either GAD ab or ICA or both. Out of the 103 non insulin-requiring, 16.5% were positive for ICA and /or GAD ab and/or IAA. The prevalence of Latent Auto-immune Diabetes of Adults (LADA) in the non-insulin requiring and in the total diabetic patients, were 13.5 and 11.7%, respectively. The prevalence of autoimmune type 1 diabetes in the studied population was 7.5% and that of autoimmune diabetes in the total diabetic population was 19.2%. Autoimmune and autoantibody-negative type 2, diabetes did not differ (p = ns) in the mean values of clinical and metabolic parameters, except hypertension, central obesity and HbA1C values. Autoimmune diabetes occurs in recently diagnosed diabetic patients in Ghana at prevalence comparable to that in developed countries. Both ICA and GAD ab tests are required to identify autoimmune diabetes.

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