Chemical Composition of Kalimatar, a Locally Grown Strain of Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.)
The chemical composition (major constituents, protein solubility profile, macro- and micro-nutrients, fat characterizing parameters and fatty acids profile) of cotyledon of Kalimatar (a local strain of faba bean) was investigated to assess its nutritive quality. Exotic counterpart of this local land race (Vicia faba L.) was also included in this study to compare their nutritive quality. A little variation in nutrient contents between these two varieties was found. The local faba bean cotyledon contained 27.67% crude protein, 3.12% crude fat, 2.48% crude fibre, 5.67% ash, 4.97% total sugar and 45% starch. On the other hand, exotic faba bean cotyledon contained 27.17% crude protein, 3.29% crude fat, 1.12% crude fibre, 5.46% ash, 4.15% total sugar and 46.16% starch. The protein fraction also varied between these varieties; globulin was followed by albumin and glutelin and accounted for 79.32 and 75.30%, 6.56 and 6.47% and 5.17% and 5.87% in local and exotic varieties, respectively. Prolamin content was negligible, which accounted for 0.59 and 0.60% in local and exotic cotyledon, respectively. Essential minerals (macro- and micronutrients), such as, calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), phosphorus (P), sulphur (S), boron (B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) contents were considerably different from each other between these varieties. Local faba bean cotyledon contained 0.07% Ca, 0.18% Mg, 1.73% K, 0.88% P, 0.04% S, 6.37 ppm B, 15.13 ppm Cu, 63.25 ppm Fe, 10.33 ppm Mn and 30.45 ppm Zn. On the contrary, exotic faba bean cotyledon contained 0.05% Ca, 0.15% Mg, 1.52% K, 0.86% P, 0.03% S, 5.39 ppm B, 13.59 ppm Cu, 61.68 ppm Fe, 9.67 ppm Mn and 32.41 ppm Zn. Oil characterizing parameters of these two varieties were more or less similar. Oil content, saponification number and iodine value of local and exotic faba bean varieties were respectively 1.36 and 1.33%, 192.61 and 109.90 and 190.39 and 107.63. Among the fatty acids analyzed, linoleic acid was found to be rich in this legume which accounted for 60.75 and 54.03% in local and exotic faba bean cotyledon, respectively. The second highest fatty acid was linolenic acid (14.30 and 21.10%) followed by palmitic acid (11.59 and 9.73%) in local and exotic faba bean cotyledon, respectively. This study shows that both the cotyledons are rich in protein, reducing sugar, starch, K, Fe and linoleic acid content. This study also reveals that local land race of faba bean is comparatively better in nutrients content than its exotic counterpart.
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