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Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences
Year: 2001  |  Volume: 4  |  Issue: 1  |  Page No.: 63 - 68

Seed-Borne Fungi of Peanut in Egypt: Pathogenicity and Transmission

Mohamed A. Elwakil and Mohamed A. El-Metwally    

Abstract: Fifty seed samples of peanut seed collected from the commercial markets of Egypt were tested for the presence of seed-borne fungi. Twenty-seven fungal species were isolated and identified. Use of the blotter seed health testing method resulted in the isolation of a larger number of seed-borne fungi than the deep freezing method. The deep freezing method was more effective for the isolation of Aspergillus nidulans, A. versicolor and A. carneus, while the blotter method was more effective for the isolation of Alternaria alternate, Mucor sp., Chaetomium sp. and Stemphylium sp. Isolation of Cephalosporium sp. was the first record of the fungus on peanut seeds in Egypt. No previous reports of this fungus on peanut were found.
Pathogenicity tests showed that Sclerotium bataticola had a significant effect on seed emergence, followed by Fusarium solani, in seed inoculation experiments. Rhizoctonia solani showed a highly significant effect, followed by Sclerotium betaticola, in soil infestation treatments of Giza 4 and Giza 5 cultivars.
Transmission of Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, F. moniliforme, Cephalosporium sp. and Verticillium sp. from seed to mature plant of peanut showed that their translocation gradually decreased from the terminal part of the root towards the upper portions of the plants. The five tested fungi were reisolated from all plant portions in Giza 4 and Giza 5 cultivars, except Verticillium sp. while several attempts failed to reisolated it from the middle and upper parts of the stem or shoot tips.
The present investigation studied the detect, identify and survey the seed-borne fungi of local and introduced seeds in Egypt, study the nature of isolated fungi and their effect on peanut plants and elucidate the transmission of some pathogen fungi from seed to mature plant.

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