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Pharmacologia
Year: 2016  |  Volume: 7  |  Issue: 2-3  |  Page No.: 67 - 74

Comparative Efficacy of Triclabendazole and Nitroxynil Against Fascioliasis in Goat at Government Goat Development Farm, Sylhet, Bangladesh

S. Khanam, M.S. Islam, M. Aktaruzzaman, M.M. Hossain, M.K. Hossain, M.A. Mamun, M. Noor and M.M.R. Howlader    

Abstract: The study was conducted to evaluate the efficacies of three different commercial anthelmintic containing triclabendazole and nitroxynil against fascioliasis in goat for a period of 28 days by using 20 goats. Among hundred goats, twenty goats were selected for this study which was suffering from liver fluke (Fasciola gigantica) infection and they were marked at the neck by tag. Twenty goats were randomly divided into four groups (A, B, C and D), where each group comprising of five goats. Goats of group A were treated with tablet fasinex (triclabendazole, Novartis Ltd, Bangladesh) orally at the dose rate of 12 mg kg–1 b.wt., group B were treated with acinex (triclabendazole, ACI Ltd, Bangladesh) orally at the dose rate of 12 mg kg–1 b.wt. and group C were treated with nitronex injection (nitroxynil, Renata Ltd, Bangladesh) subcutaneously at the dose rate of 10 mg kg–1 b.wt., Goats of group D was kept as infected control group without giving any treatment. A significant (p<0.01 and p>0.05) reduction of Egg Per Gram (EPG) count was found on 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th days of treated goats of group A, B and C respectively. The EPG count of control group were significantly (p<0.01 and p>0.05) increased 7 day onwards up to experimental period. Reduction of mean EPG on 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day after treatment in group A, B and C were 81.48, 81.25 and 83.04%, respectively, whereas, in control group the mean EPG were 22.43%. Of the hematological parameters, TEC, Hb and PCV values were lower on day 0 but turned to increase (p<0.01 and p>0.05) on day 28 of the study. On the other hand, ESR and TLC were higher before treatment (day 0) but decreased significantly (p<0.01 and p>0.05) on day 28. The body weight was increased significantly (p<0.01 and p>0.05) after treatments in group A, B and C respectively except untreated control group D. This result may indicate that three different commercial anthelmintic contain triclabendazole and nitroxynil against fascioliasis in goat and nitroxynil have higher efficacies on Egg Per Gram (EPG), hematological parameters and body weight against fascioliasis in goat. Additional detailed studies are required to clarify the current status of the efficacy of the anthelmintic widely used in different agro ecologies, animal species and livestock management systems in Bangladesh.

1. Livestock is considered to be the backbone of agriculture2. Livestock feed and parasitism are the important limiting factors of livestock development in Bangladesh. As a result, about 50% apparently healthy goat population has been recognized to be affected with two or more different species of parasites3. Among the various parasitic infections fascioliasis (Fasciola sp.) is to be considered a major disease of ruminants in this country4. Fascioliasis, caused by F. hepatica and F. gigantica, is one of the most prevalent helminthes infections of ruminants in different parts of the world inducing significant morbidity and mortality5,6 as well as lower production of ruminants7. This group of liver fluke (Fasciola sp.) is also associated with anaemia8 resulting loss of body weight, stunted growth, diarrhea, etc. that greatly hamper the normal growth and production of goat. The mortality rates are 5% due to fascioliasis infestation in goat in Bangladesh9. The agro-ecological and geo-climatic condition of Bangladesh is highly favorable for the growth and multiplication of parasites. The heavy rainfall in the summer and autumn, deep fog in the winter and also low lying region might be the causes of higher prevalence of the disease in Bangladesh10. Prevalence of fascioliasis is higher during the rainy season in slaughtered goats11. Tahir12 and Dipeolu13 reported that the reason for the more prevalence of Fasciola sp. after summer season may be due to conductive factors like presence of marshy places with grass at the canal banks and presence of snails in the area. Yuliang and Zang14 reported that outbreaks of fascioliasis occurred after flooding. Especially rainfall climate conditions were often associated with prevalence of the fasciola infection because this was suitable for intermediate host like snails to reproduce and to survive longer under humid conditions15. In developed countries, the principles of controlling parasitic diseases are based on pasture and barn management16 and protective therapy. The use of sustainable, integrated parasite control systems, using scientifically proven non-chemical methods and limited use of drugs is being considered to ensure animal health and food safety17. The parasitic diseases can be prevented and controlled by using a routine prophylactic anthelmintics measurement. The present investigation was aimed to evaluate the effects of three different commercial anthelmintic fasinex (triclabendazole), acinex (triclabendazole) and nitronex injection (nitroxynil) against fascioliasis in goat irrespective to the species involved and their effects on the basis of EPG count, body weight of goats and hematological parameters like Total Erythrocyte Count (TEC), Hemoglobin% (Hb%), Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) and Total Leukocyte Count (TLC) were also included in this investigation.


MATERIALS AND METHODS

This study was conducted for a period of 28 days at Government Goat Development Farm, Sylhet and Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Science, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet, Bangladesh. The study protocol was approved by the ethical committee of the Government Goat Development Farm, Sylhet, Bangladesh.

The following procedures were adopted for performing the experiment. Twenty goats of 1.5-2 years old are weighing between 16-17 kg were selected randomly which were severely infected with fascioliasis irrespective of the species of parasites involved. These twenty goats were randomly divided into four groups each comprising of five goat and marked as A, B, C and D. Goats of group A were treated with tablet fasinex (Triclabendazole, Novartis Ltd, Bangladesh) orally at the dose rate of 12 mg kg–1 b.wt., group B were treated with acinex (triclabendazole, ACI Ltd, Bangladesh) orally at the dose rate of 12 mg kg–1 b.wt. and group C were treated with nitronex injection (nitroxynil, Renata Ltd, Bangladesh) subcutaneously at the dose rate of 10 mg kg‾1 b.wt. and goats of group D served as untreated control. Weekly EPG count was done on day 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th post treatment by McMaster egg counting technique. McMaster fecal egg count method described by Gordon and Whitlock18 was used.

The eggs in the two chambers were counted using low power objectives (10). The number of eggs per gram of feces was calculated by using the following equation:

Measurement of body weight: The body weight of all goats was taken as described by Samad19:

where, length is length from the point of shoulder to the buttock in inches. Girth was also measured in inches at the point of xyphoid cartilage.

With sterile syringe and needle maintaining aseptic condition, 5 mL of blood sample was collected from jugular vein of each goat and kept in vials containing anticoagulant (sodium- EDTA) and this was done on day of 0, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th during experimental period. All the goat of treated and control groups were closely observed for 28 days after treatment. The fecal samples were collected from the treated and control groups of goat on 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day of treatment to investigate the fecal egg count and were immediately brought to the Physiology and Pharmacology Laboratory, Sylhet, Bangladesh for fecal examination. The blood samples were collected from the treated and untreated control groups on the day ‘28’ of treatment and hematological parameters TEC, Hb, PCV, ESR and TLC were determined as per method by Coffin20.

All the data were statistically analyzed by the computer using and student "T" test21 and statistical package programmed MSTAT-C developed by Russel22 and following the standard methods by Snedecor and Cochran23 to find out the level of significance at 1 and 5% level. The eggs of parasites were identified on the basis of morphological characteristics as described by Soulsby8 and then counted. The percentage of reduction of Eggs per Gram (EPG) was calculated as N1-N2/N1×100; N1 = Number at day "0"; N2 = Number on next counting day.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Efficacies of triclabendazole and nitroxynil on egg count Eggs Per Gram (EPG) in goats: The result of the efficacies of three different commercial anthelmintic fasinex, acinex and nitronex injection against fascioliasis in goat are presented in (Table 1). In the treatment group A, mean EPG count before treatment 216.00±10.77 and after treatment mean EPG on 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day were 68.00±5.26, 60.00±5.24, 52.00±5.83 and 40.00±1.52, respectively. The rate of reduction of mean EPG on 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day after treatment were 68.52, 72.22, 75.93 and 81.48% respectively.

In treatment group B, the pre-treatment mean EPG count was 208.00±0.63 and the post treatment mean EPG count values at 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day were 66.00±4.00, 58.00±1.89, 50.00±2.74 and 39.00±2.15, respectively. The rate of reductions were significantly increased to the extent of mean EPG on 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day after treatment were 68.27, 72.12, 75.96 and 81.25%, respectively.

In treatment group C, the pre-treatment mean EPG count was 224.00±10.29 and the post-treatment mean EPG count values at 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day were 76.00±2.09, 50.00±5.68, 76.00±2.55 and 38.00±0.89, respectively. The rate of reductions were significantly increased to the extent of mean EPG on 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day after treatment were 66.07, 77.68, 66.07 and 83.04%, respectively.

Mean body weight of untreated control group D (day 0) EPG count was 214.00±17.21 and on the EPG count values at 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day were 230.00±4.47, 252.00±7.35, 255.00±7.24 and 262.00±6.52, respectively and the rate of EPG count was increased to the extent of mean EPG on 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day were 7.48, 17.76, 19.16 and 22.43%, respectively.

The efficacies of anthelmintic were evaluated on the basis of the percentage of reduction in mean egg count compared to the mean egg count per gram of feces. A significant (p<0.01 and p>0.05) reduction of EPG count was found on 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day of treated goat of group A, B and C, respectively. This findings support the earlier works of 24-33 in goat, sheep, buffaloes and cattle. This result in conformity with the earlier workers,34,35,36 in goat, buffaloes and cattle. The present finding was in agreement with the work of37 in buffaloes,30 in lamb. On the other hand, the EPG count of control group were significantly (p<0.01) increased 7 day onwards up to study period. This study supports the previous findings recorded by Islam and Samad38. In controlled studies of goat,39,40 reported that the nitroxynil showed the better efficacy against fascioliasis than other anthelmintic.

Mooney et al.41 also reported more than 98% efficacy in hill sheep flock in the west of Ireland. However it could be concluded that, nitroxynil is a potent anthelmintic from the family of substituted phenols that is utilized in ruminants for the control of trematodes, particularly for Fasciola hepatica42. The incidence of liver fluke depends upon the availability of intermediate host-snail and low lying pasture land43.

Efficacies of triclabendazole and nitroxynil on hematological parameters Total Erythrocyte Count (TEC): The fasinex, acinex and nitronex on TEC of goat for 28 days at 7 days interval was shown in (Table 2). The pre-treatment values of TEC (million/cu. mm of blood) were 7.60±0.34, 7.56±0.19 and 7.78±0.26 in the goat of group A, B and C, respectively. On the 28th day of the post-treatment, the mean values of TEC were increased up to 8.38±0.25, 8.36±0.21 and 8.42±0.17 in the goat of group A, B and C, respectively. The mean value of TEC in control group (group D) was 7.74±0.26 but the mean values of TEC started to decrease on 28th day and recorded as 6.70±0.24. The mean value of TEC was significantly increased (p<0.01 and p>0.05) on 28th day of the treatment of three anthelmintics.

Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration: The fasinex, acinex and nitronex on Hb of goat for 28 days at 7 days interval was shown in (Table 3). The pre-treatment values of Hb (g%) were 8.44±0.25, 8.40±0.40 and 8.60±0.48 in the goat of group A, B and C, respectively. On the 28th day of the post-treatment, the mean values of Hb (g%) were increased up to 9.72±0.37, 9.70±0.23 and 10.14±0.16 in the goat of group A, B and C, respectively. The mean value of Hb (g%) in control group (group D) was 8.32±0.31 but the mean values of Hb (g%) started to decrease on 28th day and recorded as 7.40±0.52. The mean value of Hb (g%) was significantly increased (p<0.01 and p>0.05) on 28th day of three anthelmintics treatment.

Packed Cell Volume (PCV): The fasinex, acinex and nitronex on PCV of goat for 28 days at 7 days interval was shown in (Table 4). The pre-treatment values of PCV were 28.40±0.07, 28.34±0.42 and 28.98±0.02 in the goat of group A, B and C, respectively.



On the 28th day of the post-treatment, the mean values of PCV were increased up to 30.40±0.04, 29.98±0.03 and 30.82±0.05 in the goat of group A, B and C, respectively. The mean value of PCV in control group (group D) was 27.95±0.02 but the mean values of PCV started to decrease on 28th day and recorded as 25.10±0.07. The mean value of PCV was significantly increased (p<0.01 and p>0.05) on 28th day of three anthelmintics treatment.

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR): The fasinex, acinex and nitronex on ESR of goat for 28 days at 7 days interval was shown in (Table 5). The initial control values of ESR (mm h–1) were 0.98±0.007, 0.97±0.004 and 1.02±0.005 in the goat of group A, B and C, respectively. On the 28th day of the post-treatment, the mean values of ESR (mm h–1) were decreased up to 0.68±0.01, 0.62±0.007 and 0.76±0.008 in the goat of group A, B and C respectively. The mean value of ESR (mm h–1) in control group (group D) was 0.92±0.08 but the mean values of ESR (mm h–1) started to increase on 28th day and r ecorded as 1.20±0.011. The mean value of ESR (mm h–1) was significantly decreased (p<0.05 and p>0.01) on 28th days of treatment.

Total Leukocyte Count (TLC): The fasinex, acinex and nitronex on TLC of goat for 28 days at 7 days interval was shown in (Table 6).The pre-treatment values of TLC were 8.14±0.037, 8.08±0.024 and 8.34±0.02 in the goat of group A, B and C, respectively. On the 28th day of the post-treatment, the mean values of TLC were decreased up to 7.60±0.02, 7.24±0.02 and 7.70±0.019 in the goat of group A, B and C, respectively. The mean value of TLC in control group (group D) was 7.96±0.013 but the mean values of TLC started to increase on 28th day and recorded as 8.58±0.017. The mean value of TLC was significantly decreased (p<0.05 and p>0.01) on 28th days of treatment.

During the study of hematological parameters it was found that after treatment with fasinex, acinex and nitronex injection, TEC, Hb and PCV were significantly (p<0.01 and p>0.05) increased and on the other hand, ESR and TLC was significantly (p<0.05 and p>0.01) decreased in treated groups. The mean value of Hb, PCV and TEC were decreased and ESR, TLC values were increased in untreated naturally parasitized control group. Similar results have also been stated by the earlier workers25,44-52 in goat, sheep, buffaloes and cattle.

Efficacies of triclabendazole and nitroxynil on body weight: The mean initial body weight on day ‘0’ of goat in group A, B and C were 16.50±0.068, 16.60±0.07 and 16.40±0.07 kg, respectively was shown in (Table 7). On the 28th day of the post-treatment, the mean values of body weight were increased up to 17.50±0.068, 17.00±0.065 and 17.60±0.07 in the goat of group A, B and C, respectively. Mean body weight of untreated control group D (day 0) was 16.30±0.13 and on the 28th day were 15.35±0.13. The body weight increased significantly (p<0.01) after treatments in group A, B and C. On the other hand, the body weight significantly decreased in untreated control group (D) due to overload of parasites within the body of goat. The improvement percentage in goats of group A, B and C after 28th day was 2.12, 2.42 and 2.95%, respectively.



In the control group (group D) body weight was reduces to the extent of 1.08% after 28th day (Table 7).

The body weight increased significantly (p<0.01 and p>0.05) after treatments in group A, B and C. The body weight was increased and this may be due to removal of parasitic load, proper absorption and metabolism of nutrient in the parasite free gastrointestinal tract. The body weight gains in the ivermectin, levamisole and albendazole treated goat are supported by Isles et al.53 in heifers. On the other hand, the body weight significantly decreased in untreated control group due to overload of parasites within the body of cow. Some earlier workers found improvement in body weight after treatment 54-61 in cattle and goat.

**ad4**

CONCLUSION

The finding of the present study reveals that fascioliasis infestations are prevalent in Bangladesh and this study indicated that nitronex (nitroxynil) are highly effective on egg count (EPG), hematological parameters (TEC, Hb, PCV, ESR and TLC) and body weight in fascioliasis in goat than that of fasinex (triclabendazole) and acinex (triclabendazole) during the experiment. All the livestock in the area under investigation largely depended on grazing in deteriorated range-lands. It was also observed that farms in these areas lack fences and cattle, sheep and goats use the same pasture for grazing. In this regard, it is suggested that practice of separate grazing of animals with low stocking rate may be adopted. Furthermore, during the rainy season, climatic factors like temperature and humidity are favorable for the development and survival of different pre-parasitic stages. It is therefore, suggested that anthelmentic treatment on quarterly basis may be implemented to reduce the risk of re-infection. Further study should be required to prevent the parasitic infection of the animals and maximizing the production.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors are grateful to the livestock officer, all staffs at Government Goat Development Farm, Sylhet as well as Department of Physiology and Pharmacology for their financial assistance, kind help, scholastic guidance, constructive criticism, continuous inspiration and technical support in every step of the experiment.

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