Asian Science Citation Index is committed to provide an authoritative, trusted and significant information by the coverage of the most important and influential journals to meet the needs of the global scientific community.  
ASCI Database
308-Lasani Town,
Sargodha Road,
Faisalabad, Pakistan
Fax: +92-41-8815544
Contact Via Web
Suggest a Journal
Pharmacologia
Year: 2014  |  Volume: 5  |  Issue: 3  |  Page No.: 110 - 119

Ameliorative Effects of Dried Garlic Powder (Allium sativum) on Hematological Parameters against Lead (Pb) Intoxication in Broiler Chickens

M.A. Hossain, M.R. Akanda, M. Mostofa and M.A. Awal    

Abstract: Background: Lead (Pb) is one of the toxic substances equally important like other toxic heavy metals. Lead (Pb) has extensive commercial and industrial use despite of public health hazard. Therefore, the work reported here was conducted to detect the therapeutic application of garlic (Allium sativum) on hematological parameters in lead-induced broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and fifty commercial broiler chickens were grouped into 5 such as T0, T1, T2, T3 and T4 consisting of 70 birds each where T0 served as control. T1 was provided with lead acetate at 100 mg kg-1 b.wt., T2 had 100 mg kg-1 lead acetate+1% garlic supplement, T3 was fed with 100 mg kg-1 lead acetate+2% garlic supplement and T4 had 100 mg kg-1 lead acetate+4% garlic supplement with the aim to determine the hematological changes in lead exposed chickens. Results: The analysis of variance in different groups were statistically significant (p<0.01). The mean values of erythrocyte, Hb and PCV values significantly reduced from 2.217±0.020-2.062±0.047, 7.697±0.247-6.172±0.198 and 25.183±0.8122-23.532±1.001, respectively in group T1. The ameliorating effects of garlic in heavy metal lead (Pb) revealed most significant (p<0.01) increased erythrocyte, hemoglobin and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) values from 2.16±0.034-2.46±0.077, 8.362±0.262-10.44±0.26 and 23.64±0.90-30.68±0.75 in group T3, respectively. Similarly Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) were also resulted increased mean values from 121.12±5.28-131.50±3.72, 38.83±1.38-47.86±1.76 and 14.03±0.89-17.55±1.03, respectively in group (T3). Present study also revealed the increased values of leukocytes that might be attributed to the inflammatory process of leukocytes caused by lead (Pb). Significantly (p<0.01) decreased values of leukocytes were observed in group T3 compared to group T2 and T4 due to the ameliorative action of garlic in lead exposed chickens. Garlic in lead (Pb) exposed chickens could be considered as a potent inhibitor of lymphocytic proliferation that was evident in the present study by matured numbers of leukocytes. Conclusion: The consumption of certain percentages of garlic indicated that it might be capable of enhancing elimination of toxic effects on hematological changes in lead exposed chickens.

Emongor et al., 2005). The entry of lead (Pb) into the food chain is a major concern, since it can cause chronic health problems. Plants can absorb Pb from soils. Lead (Pb) produces acute and chronic poisoning and induces a broad range of physiological, biochemical and behavioral dysfunctions in animals. Lead (Pb) is also known to reduce erythrocyte membrane stability (Humphreys, 1991). Although lead (Pb) toxicity has been extensively studied in human health, there are only a limited number of studies on the effects of lead (Pb) in chickens. Therefore, it is needed to conduct the baseline study to evaluate the effects of lead exposure in chickens. Lead (Pb), the most abundant toxic heavy metal in the environment, has been consequently increased due to the extensive commercial use of lead (Pb) from prehistoric times despite its recognized hazards (Al-Saleh, 1994). Lead has long been recognized as a poison to living organisms, with negative effects on general health, reproduction, behavior and potentially leading to death. Ingestion and inhalation are the most common entry routes of lead (Pb) into animals. In many countries, Pb poisoning continues to be a common occupational disease affecting several organ systems.

Exposure to lead (Pb) significantly decreased red blood cell counts, hemoglobin levels and hematocrit values (Terayama, 1993). Anemia accompanying lead (Pb) poisoning has the inhibitory effects of lead (Pb) on heme biosynthesis. Exposure to lead (Pb) in drinking water significantly decreased red blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit value (Bersenyi et al., 2003). The decreased RBC count depends on dose and duration of lead acetate. A shortening of erythrocyte survival time was also observed in the rats exposed to lead (Lanphear et al., 2005; Terayama, 1993). The precise mechanism underlying lead (Pb) toxicity on RBC is still to be defined. However, lead (Pb) could affect the erythrocyte membrane and decrease their mobility (Terayama, 1993). The decrease in hemoglobin concentration may coincide with higher BLLs. The Environmental Protection Agency estimated that the threshold BLL for a decrease in hemoglobin is 50 μg dL-1 (USEPA, 1986). Lead (Pb) may inhibit the ability to make hemoglobin by interfering with several enzymatic steps in the heme pathway. Several authors pointed out different types of anemia developed in animals exposed to lead (Bersenyi et al., 2003; Terayama, 1993). Treatment of animals with garlic resulted in some improvement in the RBC count, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit value. However, the prophylactic effect of garlic on blood parameters was more pronounced than that with olive oil. It was pointed out that garlic oil contains natural sulfur compounds which act as anti-lead active substances (Attia and Ali, 1993). The protection action of garlic against lead (Pb) toxicity could be attributed to the antioxidant action of its sulfhydryl groups (Ashour, 2002).

Contamination is transferred to food animals via., direct exposure of lead (Pb), lead (Pb) polluted water, crops grown on lead (Pb) contaminated irrigated water and industrial effluents. Another important reason for causing lead (Pb) contamination of food animals is the deposition of contaminants to the soil or aquatic environment from vehicular emission. It is necessary to establish ongoing knowledge of various pollutants in the chicken meat because of meat is a food material which is composed of mainly proteins, fat and some important essential elements. Among various pollutants in the environment, lead (Pb) is directly related to public health issues (Vengris and Mare, 1974). Pollution of the environment with toxic metals and radioactive waste has dramatically increased since the beginning of the industrial revolution (Emongor et al., 2005). Garlic contains more than 200 chemical compounds. Some of its more important ones include: Sulphur-containing compounds (allicin, alliin and ajoene) and enzymes (allinase, peroxidase and myrosinase) protein, fiber and free amino acids. It also contains high levels of saponins, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, zinc, moderate levels of selenium, vitamins A and C and low levels of calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron, manganese and B-complex vitamins (Mahaffey and Vanderveen, 1979). Most researchers agree that the sulfur containing compounds of garlic, especially allicin, alliin, cy-croalliin and dialllyldisulphide are the most biochemically active. Garlic contains high levels of organosulphur compounds. The lipid-soluble diallyl sulphide, diallyl disulphide (DADS) and diallyl trisulphide (DATS) and water-soluble S-allylcysteine (SAC) and Sallylmercaptocysteine (SAMC) are the major chemotherapeutic agents (Amagase et al., 2001). Garlic contains at least 33 sulfur compounds, several enzymes, 17 amino acids and minerals such as selenium (Newall et al., 1996). Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate the ability of garlic to ameliorate the toxic effect of lead (Pb) on hematological parameters in chickens.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The study was operated with the aim for ameliorating effect of lead (Pb) toxicity on hematological parameters by the use of different doses of garlic supplement in lead toxicity induced broiler chickens. The experimental design and following methodology were adopted for performing the present study.

Preparation of poultry house for experimental birds: The experimental animal house particularly floor, walls, wire net, ceiling etc., were properly brushed with broom and then washed by forced water using a hosepipe. After washing with clean water, the room was disinfected by bleaching powder. Then the house was left for 15 days and then the shed was again disinfected with Virkons (Antes International Limited, England). Simultaneously, all the feeders, drinkers and other necessary utensils were properly cleaned, washed, disinfected accordingly and was left them unused until the arrival of Day-Old-Chick’s. Ceiling, walls, wire net etc., were finally disinfected with Virkon solution by spraying (1 g L-1). Three days before the arrival of the chicks, the rooms were fumigated with potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and formalin at double strength (2X). For 100 ft3 area, a mixture of 35 g KMnO4 and 70 mL formalin was used for fumigation. The house was fumigated for a period of 48 h for disinfection.

Rearing of experimental birds: A total of 350-day-old commercial broiler chickens (Hubbard Classic) of both sexes were collected from a local breeder farm. The chicks were housed in floor pens containing litter composed of rice husk and saw dust and received a corn-based starter diet. The chicks were reared under fluorescent lighting. Chicks had ad libitum access to feed and water. All chicks were weighed individually at day 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. The diet was formulated to have adequate amounts of all known nutrients. Feed consumption was measured daily for each treatment. The different ingredients of feed were locally purchased and analyzed for its proximate analysis. The chicks were fed with three types of diet consisting starter, grower and finisher. The chicks were fed a basal starter diet until 15 days of age. This was followed by a basal grower diet from day 16-22 and finisher diet from day 23-42. Diet was fed in mesh form and contained no growth promoters, probiotics, coccidiostats, exogenous enzymes or antibiotics. The diets were formulated according to US National Research Council guidelines. The light was continuous during the experiment. The temperature was gradually decreased by 5°F at every week from 90-75°F and continued throughout the experimental course. Chickens were reared under standard management conditions throughout the experimental course. The overall management of rearing was well organized in order to prevent cross contamination effectively throughout the experimental course. Daily clinical observation was also ensured.

Use of lead acetate and garlic (Allium Sativum) in different treatment groups: The chicks were randomly assigned to 5 separate pens named Group T0, Group T1, Group T2, Group T3 and Group T4 and 70 birds in each group. Each experiment was operated separately. Group T0 was kept as control group. Group T1 was given only lead acetate at 100 mg kg-1. Group T2 was treated with lead acetate at 100 mg kg-1+1% garlic supplement. Group T3 was treated with lead acetate at 100 mg kg-1+2% garlic supplement and Group T4 was treated with lead acetate at 100 mg kg-1+4% garlic supplement. The experimental course was operated for 42 uninterrupted days. Three experimental diets were formulated to have 1, 2 and 4% garlic (Allium sativum) powder for Group T2, Group T3 and Group T4, respectively. Control diet was free from both dietary garlic (Allium sativum) and lead acetate. Diets were formulated from the locally commercially available ingredients. Garlic was prepared without skin and dried in a Freeze Drier Model (LABCONCO) for 72 h and then ground to become powder. The 10 birds were sacrificed from each group on every week at day 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. Analytical grade lead acetate that used in this study was obtained from Merck (Germany). Garlic (Allium sativum) was locally purchased. The doses of lead acetate and garlic were based on other studies (Hanafy et al., 1994; Ashour, 2002; Vengris and Mare, 1974; Yassin, 2005). The garlic powder was not deodorized.

Collection of blood and sampling procedures to determine the effect of garlic on hematological study in lead (Pb) toxicity induced broiler chickens: Collected blood samples were used for hematological analysis at 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th, 35th and 42nd day. At each sampling date, ten chickens were randomly sacrificed from each group. Approximately 2-3 mL of blood samples was collected from wing vein into a screw cap test tube containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) by sterile disposable syringe immediately before the sacrifice of the chickens for hematological study. The whole blood samples having EDTA were stored at 4°C and processed within 2 h.

Total Erythrocyte Counts (TEC) to determine the effect of garlic in lead (Pb) toxicity induced broiler chickens: Total erythrocytes or Red Blood Cells (RBC) count were performed by a manual method using hemocytometer. Erythrocyte counts were made by using a Coulter Counter. Dry clean red pipette was dipped into the blood and blood was drawn up to the 0.5 mark of the pipette. Then the tip of the pipette was cleaned by cotton and immediately placed into Hayem’s solution. The blood was immediately drawn exactly up to 101 mark of the red cell pipette. The pipette was shaken at eight knot motion for 2 min. After discarding 2-3 drops of fluid from the pipette a small drop was placed to the edge of the cover glass of the counting chamber and the area under the cover glass was filled by the fluid introduced. One minute was allowed to settle down the cells uniformly into the counting chamber. The cells were counted from the recognized 80 small squares under high power objectives and were calculated accordingly. The total RBC numbers were expressed in million/cumm.

Estimation of hemoglobin to determine the effect of garlic in lead (Pb) toxicity induced broiler chickens: The hemoglobin concentration was measured using the cyanomethomoglobin technique. Hydrochloric acid (0.1 N) was taken in the graduated diluting tube up to 2 marks with the help of a dropper. Exactly 20 μL citrated well-homogenized blood was then added directly into the diluting fluid by Sahli pipette and was mixed thoroughly, thus acid-hematin was formed. This blood and acid were then thoroughly mixed by a glass stirrer into the diluting tube. There was the formation of acid hematin in the tube by the hemolysed RBC and HCl. This tube containing acid hematin mixture was kept standing position in the comparator for 5 min. After 5 min N/10 hydrocholoric acid was added drop by drop until the color of the content matched to the standard color of the comparator. Distilled water was added drop by drop and stirred until the color of the content matches to that of the standard color of the comparator. The result was recorded in daylight by observing the height of the liquid in the tube considering the lower meniscus of the liquid column. The hemoglobin (Hb) was recorded within 10 min and was expressed in g%.

Estimation of PCV values to determine the effect of garlic in lead (Pb) toxicity induced broiler chickens: Packed Cell Volume (PCV) was determined by the micro hematocrit method using capillary tubes and the percentage of packed erythrocytes was determined. The fresh anticoagulant containing blood was taken into the Wintrobe hematocrit tube by using special loading pipette exactly upto 0 marks. The tube was filled exactly upto 10 mark of the right sided scale of the tube. The tip of the pipette was inserted to the bottom of a clean, dry Wintrobe hematocrit tube. Excess blood above the mark was wiped away by cotton. The rubber bulb of the pipette was pressed continuously to expel the blood out of the pipette. The wintrobe hematocrit tube was filled from the bottom. Following the blood comes out; the pipette was slowly withdrawn by pushing continuous pressure on the rubber bulb. The tubes were placed in a centrifuge machine and were centrifuged for 30 min at 3000 rpm. After 30 min the tubes were taken out. Then the Hematocrit/PCV values were recorded. The percent volume occupied by the hematocrit was calculated by using the following equation. The result was expressed in percentage (%):

Estimation of MCV, MCH and MCHC to determine the effect of garlic in lead (Pb) toxicity induced broiler chickens: RBC indices are useful in the differential diagnosis of anemia. MCV is a measurement of the average volume or size of a single RBC. It was calculated by dividing the hematocrit by the total RBC count. Increased MCV gives a macrocytic RBC. Decreased RBC gives a microcytic RBC. The Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) is a measure of the average amount (by weight) of hemoglobin within an RBC. This was calculated by dividing the total hemoglobin concentration by the number of RBCs. The Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) is a measure of the average concentration or percentage of hemoglobin within a single RBC. It is the product of the Hb concentration by the Hct. MCHC describes how fully the erythrocyte volume is filled with hemoglobin and is calculated from measurement of hemoglobin (Hb), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) and Red Cell Count (RBC).

Differential counts of leukocytes to determine the effect of garlic in lead (Pb) toxicity induced broiler chickens: Leukocyte morphologies were evaluated through microscopic examination of stained blood smears. Thin blood smears were prepared immediately after collection of blood from the experimental birds to avoid any interference on cell structure or morphology and then air-dried immediately. Blood smears were then fixed in methanol and stained with standard Wright’s Giemsa (WG) stains for counting of lymphocytes, heterophils and basophils. The result was expressed in thousands/cu.mm. of blood leukocytes.

Statistical analysis: The statistical analyses of variance were analyzed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) using the General Linear Models (GLM) procedure of SAS software. Duncan’s multiple range tests were also used to locate the calculated means that are significantly different. Results were displayed as Mean±Standard Error (SE).

Place of work: The experiment was conducted as a part of Ph.D. research program in Department of Pharmacology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh with the financial assistance from Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council (BARC), Farmgate, Dhaka, Bangladesh, University Grants Commission (UGC), Bangladesh and USDA project, Bangladesh.

**ad1**

RESULTS

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of garlic supplementation on TEC, Hb and PCV in lead toxicity induced broiler chickens. Analysis of variance of data on hematological examinations revealed significant difference among the treatment groups. The results of hematological parameters were given in Mean±Standard Error (SE) mean for each value. The results of hematological parameters for Total Erythrocyte Count (TEC), Hemoglobin (Hb) and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) are summarized in Table 1-3, respectively. The mean values of TEC, Hb and PCV corresponding to the different treatments were statistically significant (p<0.01).


Following the treatment with lead acetate at 100 mg kg-1 for 42 days long experimental course, the mean values of erythrocyte, Hb and PCV values significantly (p<0.05) reduced from 2.217±0.020-2.062±0.047, 7.697±0.247-6.172±0.198 and 25.183±0.8122-23.532±1.007, respectively. However, following 42 days of garlic consumption at different therapeutic doses in lead (Pb) toxicity induced chickens, the mean values of TEC, Hb and PCV were increased significantly (p<0.05). Following 42 days of garlic consumption the TEC values were increased from 2.269±0.099-2.289±0.041, 2.162±0.033-2.467±0.071 and 2.217±0.038-2.358±0.065 in lead acetate at 100 mg kg-1+1% garlic supplement (T2), lead acetate at 100 mg kg-1+2% garlic supplement (T3) and lead acetate at 100 mg kg-1+4% garlic supplement (T4), respectively. Lead (Pb) resulted significant (p<0.05) reduced values of erythrocytes in chickens in comparison with the control group. This toxic effect may result from decreased number of erythrocytes and decreased content of hemoglobin from damaging or destroying of erythrocyte membrane. Garlic was found to able to effectively return of RBC count to near the control values and it is highly significant (p<0.001) in 2% garlic supplement and lead acetate at 100 mg kg-1 group (T3) in compared to the 1+4% garlic supplement and lead acetate at 100 mg kg-1 treated groups (T2) and (T4), respectively. Anemia resulted from lead poisoning in this study that may result from various inhibitory effects of lead (Pb) on heme biosynthesis. Lead acetate group (T1) significantly (p<0.001) decreased red blood cell counts, hemoglobin levels and hematocrit values as it was reported previously by Al-Saleh (1994).

The mean value of hemoglobin (Hb) content in lead acetate at 100 mg kg-1 (T1) group was recorded as 7.697±0.247 on day 07, however the decreased mean value 6.172±0.198 was recorded on 42 days of treatment. Following the treatment with dietary garlic, the present study revealed a significant (p<0.01) increased value of hemoglobin content from 7.418±0.166-8.491±0.227, 8.362±0.266-10.443±0.266 and 8.044±0.381-8.882±0.259 in lead acetate at 100 mg kg-1+1% garlic supplement (T2), lead acetate at 100 mg kg-1+2% garlic supplement (T3) and lead acetate at 100 mg kg-1+4% garlic supplement (T4) group, respectively after 42 days long experimental course (Table 2). The ameliorating effect was more obvious with Lead acetate at 100 mg kg-1+2% garlic supplement (T3). Anemia develops in lead (Pb) exposed population both by interfering with heme biosynthesis and by hemolysis process. The effect of garlic supplement in lead (Pb) toxicity induced chickens was investigated to determine the effect on PCV values. The mean PCV values of broilers is influenced by different therapeutic doses of dietary garlic in lead (Pb) toxicity induced broiler chickens and are presented in Table 3. Lead acetate resulted PCV values that decreased from 25.183±0.812-23.532±1.007 after 42 days of treatment. The mean PCV values was significantly increased from 26.352±0.729-28.072±1.273, 23.649±0.905-30.682±0.753 and 28.241±1.009-29.744±0.635 in the treatment groups of lead acetate at 100 mg kg-1+1% garlic supplement (T2), lead acetate at 100 mg kg-1+2% garlic supplement (T3) and lead acetate at 100 mg kg-1+4% garlic supplement (T4), respectively at 42 days of treatment. It can be concluded that treatment of chickens with garlic significantly (p<0.01) increased PCV values.

The calculated mean values of MCV, MCH and MCHC were significantly (p<0.01) reduced from 127.49±4.04-115.99±5.17, 34.74±1.01-28.82±1.21 and 13.51±11.67±0.58, respectively in lead acetate at 100 mg kg-1 exposed chickens. While MCV, MCH and MCHC was significantly different among the groups fed on diets containing all levels of garlic (Allium sativum). In the present study, MCV, MCH and MCHC registered significant (p<0.05) increased values from 121.12±5.28-131.50±3.72, 38.83±1.38-47.86±1.75 and 14.03±0.89-17.55±1.03 due to the use of 2% garlic supplement in lead toxicity induced chickens (Table 4-6). White blood cells are responsible for both nonspecific and specific defense of a host. Non-specific defense of the organism plays an important role as the first line protection against pathogens that take part in the process of phagocytosis. Leukocyte counts in lead acetate group were increased significantly compared to the control groups (p<0.05), which indicate leukocytosis. Study of the different kinds of leukocytes revealed a significant (p<0.05) increase of lymphocytes (9.33±0.75), heterophils (4.49±0.52) and basophils (0.53±0.08) in the tested group in comparison with the control groups, which were statistically significant (p<0.01) and indicated lead-induced lymphocytosis, heterophilia and basophilia (Table 7-9). The increased number of immature lymphocytes, heterophils and basophils were found as 7.97±0.30-9.33±0.75, 3.32±0.184-4.49±0.52 and 0.32±0.02-0.53±0.08, respectively in group T3 in lead exposed chickens. Little is known about the leukocytic effects of garlic (Allium sativum) in case of lead toxicity.






The aim of the current study was to investigate the significant effect of garlic on leukocyte through the counting of differential leukocytes compared to the control. No significant (p>0.05) differences were observed in control group. Following the treatment with garlic supplement in lead exposed chickens, the present study showed the decreased and matured number of White Blood Cells (WBCs) in all garlic supplemented groups (T2, T3, T4) compared to the only lead acetate treated group (T1). Significantly (p<0.01) decreased values of lymphocytes (9.06±0.14), heterophils (2.46±0.0.06) and basophils (0.31±0.01) were observed in 2% garlic supplemented group compared to the lead acetate group.

DISCUSSION

Lead (Pb) is a natural element and widespread in the environment. A considerable body of research has been accumulated on chemical therapy of lead poisoning (Flora et al., 1995). However, reduction of lead (Pb) burden by garlic supplement in experimentally lead (Pb) toxicity induced broiler chickens was extensively studied in this experiment. Considering the antioxidant properties of garlic, this study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of garlic in terms of normalization of altered hematological parameters. Lead toxicity showed a significant decline in total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration and PCV values, while leukocyte counts especially lymphocyte, heterophils and monocytes increased significantly. In this study, simultaneous dietary intake of garlic and lead acetate for 42 days resulted the significant hematological alterations. The development of anemia due to lead intoxication has been previously reported (Jeng et al., 1997). Development of anemia in lead toxicity may be attributed to the decreased red blood cell survival time because of the increased membrane fragility, reduced RBC count, decreased hemoglobin content or summation of all these factors (ATSDR, 1993; Redig et al., 1991). The present study also correlates with the study reported by Tandon et al. (2001). It has been reported that garlic markedly increases erythrocyte membrane rigidity and decreases cellular deformability (Chiu et al., 1979). Garlic can provide glutathione, biosynthesize metallothionein or similar protein and its antioxidant properties appear to protect against potential oxidative damage of cellular membrane of erythrocytes by lead (Pb) (Jain, 1977).

The use of lead acetate in the erythroid tissue culture medium has shown that lead (Pb) inhibits the proliferation of erythroid lineage and agitates cell development and hemoglobin synthesis (Bersenyi et al., 2003; Terayama, 1993). Lead may inhibit the body’s ability to make hemoglobin by interfering with several enzymatic steps in the heme pathway (Hogan and Adams, 1979). The anemic state in the lead toxic chickens was more readily detected by reduced blood hemoglobin concentrations than by packed cell volumes. Decreased hematocrit and hemoglobin levels were recorded following treatment with lead (ATSDR, 1993). Sulfur-containing amino acids from sulfur-rich food garlic act as chelating or binding agents for the heavy metal lead (Pb) perhaps through the process of chelation, forming relatively inert bonds with the lead (Pb), in which form they can be carried out of the body (Amagase et al., 2001; Yassin, 2005).

Garlic can stimulate the production of glutathione, an amino acid and the smooth muscle relaxant. The present study revealed that administration of garlic supplement induced significant increases of hematocrit values in treated chickens, which agree with the results of Martin and Ernst (2003) who verified that the addition of Allium sativum increased erythrocytes number, hemoglobin content and hematocrit values. Allium sativum has some constituents that may play a role in the immune system stimulation and in the function of organs related to blood cell formation such as thymus, spleen and bone marrow (Jeng et al., 1997). Antioxidant micronutrients are known to ameliorate this adverse health outcome. Consumption of increased amounts of micronutrients appears a pragmatic way out of lead (Pb) (Mahaffey and Vanderveen, 1979).

Blood indices (MCV, MCH and MCHC) are particularly important for the diagnosis of anemia in most animals (Redig et al., 1991). Development of anemia in this study might be due to effects of lead in cell metabolism, alteration of the enzyme activity and interaction with reactions with calcium. Interaction of lead (Pb) with heme biosynthesis has been related to the inhibition of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial enzymes (ATSDR, 1993; Chmielnicka et al., 1994). The observed decrease RBC count depends on dose and duration of lead acetate intake. The decrease in RBC count observed here is in agreement with that recorded previously (Iavicoli et al., 2003). Lead (Pb) resulted a shortening of erythrocyte survival time, decreased their mobility, proleferation of erythrocyte membrane resulting the decreased hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit values (Redig et al., 1991). However, the prophylactic effect of garlic on blood parameters was evident in this study. It was pointed out that garlic contains natural sulfur compounds which act as anti-lead active substances (Attia and Ali, 1993). This implies the antioxidant action of garlic sulfhydryl groups on RBCs. Garlic supplement exerted substantial improvements in all hematological parameters studied and returned their levels to near those of controls (Gurer et al., 1998).

The reason for such leukocytosis has been attributed to the extent of lead-induced inflammation (Yagminas et al., 1990). It may be concluded that increased leukocytic differential count may be linked to the increased inflammatory process of leukocytes caused by lead (Pb). The different types of leukocytes are influenced by the lead toxicity as it was previously reported by Latimer and Bienzle (2000). Lymphocytes were the most commonly observed leukocytes and heterophils were the second most commonly observed leukocytes in the present study. The increased numbers of lymphocytes, heterophils and basophilia has also been reported by several authors (Patel et al., 2001; Hogan and Adams, 1979). The observed increased numbers of blood leukocytes were due to the presence of immature leukocytes. The results of the present study following the administration of garlic in lead toxicity induced broiler chickens showed a significant decrease in the white blood cell counts that demonstrated the inhibitory effect of proliferation process of leukocytes in the treatment of different doses of garlic supplement. This phenomenon indicates an improvement in leukocyte counts following the treatment with garlic in lead toxicity induced broiler chickens. Garlic favorably affects microcirculation, decreases plasma viscosity, preserves the structure and function of blood cells (Kiesewetter et al., 1991; Moriguchi et al., 2001). These positive effects on defense mechanisms of the investigated animals perhaps contributed to the improvement of leukocytes of experimental birds as it was reported previously in several studies (Tatara et al., 2005; Salman et al., 1999). Lead (Pb) has been observed to leukocytosis and enhances lymphocyte proliferation. In conclusion, present study revealed that administration of garlic supplement in lead toxicity induced broiler chickens causes the activation, maturation and inhibition of lymphocytes, heterophils, monocytes, basophils and some extent of eosinophils that may stimulate the defense mechanisms and influences favorably growth rate and systemic development of the investigated broiler chickens.

CONCLUSION

In view of earlier literature, present study investigated the possible use of garlic feeding at different doses to understand lead (Pb) toxicity and its useful uses on hematological parameters. These results suggest that garlic might have some therapeutic effects on lead poisoning and can be a protective regimen for lead toxicity. The observed decreased values of RBC count in the present study indicated the toxic effect of lead (Pb) intake. In the present study, it can be concluded that garlic supplement significantly suppressed the hemolysis rate and protects erythrocyte membranes. Studies performed on chickens concluded that garlic can prevent the toxic effect of lead (Pb) perhaps from damaging and destroying erythrocyte membrane. The increased number of immature WBCs could be result from the stimulation of inflammatory proliferation. It may be concluded that following the administration of garlic supplementation, there was an inhibitory effect to stop the further inflammatory proliferation of leukocytes in lead toxicity induced chickens. Thus, garlic supplementation may be considered as a potent inhibitor of leukocyte proliferation in lead toxicity induced chickens. It may be concluded that garlic can improve the deformability of the granulocytes.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author is thankful to Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council (BARC), Farmgate, Dhaka, Bangladesh, University Grants Commission (UGC), Bangladesh and USDA project, Bangladesh for providing the fund to carry out the present research work as a part of Ph.D. Program.

" target="_blank">View Fulltext    |   Related Articles   |   Back
   
 
 
 
  Related Articles

 
 
 
 
Copyright   |   Desclaimer   |    Privacy Policy   |   Browsers   |   Accessibility