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Pharmacologia
Year: 2013  |  Volume: 4  |  Issue: 4  |  Page No.: 276 - 284

Current Status of Indian Medicinal Plants with Aphrodisiac Potential

Ramandeep Singh, Ashraf Ali and Sarabjeet Singh    

Abstract: In India, indigenous remedies have been used in treatment of sexual dysfunction since the time of Charaka and Sushruta. Plants have always an exemplary source of drugs and many of the currently available drugs have been derived directly or indirectly from them. An aphrodisiac is defined as an agent that arouses sexual desire. Erectile dysfunction or Sexual dysfunction (ED or SD) or male impotence is defined as the inability of a man to achieve and maintain an erection sufficient for mutually satisfactory intercourse with his partner. Sexual health and function are important determinants of quality of life. To overcome the problem of male sexual erectile dysfunction various Indian natural aphrodisiac plants potentials were preferred. The ethnobotanical information reports that about 200 plants possess aphrodisiac potential. Out of several Indian medicinal plants 33 plants were reviewed. In this review, studies on Indian medicinal plants were reviewed and their possible therapeutic applications were discussed. This review discuss about aphrodisiac potential of Indian medicinal plants, its botanical name, Common name, family, extract, models used, part used and references, which are helpful for researcher to development new herbal aphrodisiac formulations. In the recent years, interest in drugs of plant origin has been progressively increased.

1,2.

This review will discuss the current research done in India on the most popular natural aphrodisiacs and examine the weight of evidence to support or discourage the use of any of them to enhance sexual desire and/or function.

PARAMETERS USED IN ASSESSING APHRODISIAC ACTIVITY

For the study of aphrodisiac activity many in vitro and in vivo models have been used. Methods that are used in aphrodisiac study can be categorized into physical methods including male sexual behavior (Mount Frequency, Mount Latency, Intromission frequency, Intromission latency, Ejaculation frequency, Post-ejaculatory interval, index of libido, computed male sexual behavior parameter),Orientation behavior, Determination of hesitation time and attraction towords female, test of potency, test for libido, penile microcirculation study, Intracavernous pressure study and biochemical methods, hormonal determination, assay of nitric oxide synthase and androgen receptor protein:

Intromission Frequency (IF) is the introduction of one organ or parts in another
Mount Frequency (MF) is the number of mounts in series, or number of mounts in a given period of time
Mount Latency (ML) is the time interval between the introductions of the female to the first mount by the male
Intromission Latency (IL) is the interval from the time of introduction of the female to the first intromission by the male
Ejaculatory Latency (EL) is the time interval between the first intromission and ejaculation
Post-ejaculatory Interval (PEI): The time between the occurrence of ejaculation and the resumption of sexual activity, as indicated by next intromission3,4

Guidelines follow during Experiment:

The following guidelines followed during experiment.

Males were kept individually but females were kept in groups
Training of each male for 15 min at a time was performed until sexual behavior was elicited and when the behavior was noticed, males were exposed to receptive females (1 male with 5 females)
Repeated training to overcome the lack of sexual response in the presence of observers
The study was conducted in a silent room under dim red light
Any jerking movement of the mating area was avoided to enable the rats to chase each other
Cleaning of the mating area was performed after each trial, since the urine trails left by one rat might alter the sexual behavior of the next rat5.

MECHANISM INVOLVED IN APHRODISIAC POTENTIALS

Sexual desire is controlled and regulated by the central nervous system which integrates tactile, olfactory and mental stimuli6.

Role of nitric oxide: On sexual stimulation (visual (or) otherwise the famines of the axons of parasympathetic nerves release Nitric Oxide (NO) gas. The gas diffuses into smooth muscle cells that line those arteries of the corpus carvenosum (spongy erectile tissue) and activates the enzyme Guanylate Cyclase (GC). The later converts the nucleotide Guanosine Triphosphate (GTP) into cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate (cGMP). The cGMP in turn causes the smooth muscle cells around the penis to relax, leading to dilation and increased flux of blood into the penile tissue. This blood is essentially trapped in the penis and results in an erection. The erection ceases after a while because cGMP is hydrolyzed by Phosphodiesterase Type-5 Enzyme (PDE-5) into inactive GMP. (The PDE-5 enzyme resides in the penile tissues). Aphrodisiac potentials inhibit the hydrolyzing action of PDE-5 with the result that active cGMP can accumulate. ‘Undisturbed’ and prolong the erection through increased blood flow2.

The scientific community explained the biologically significant aphrodisiac into three primary categories.

First: Some aphrodisiac simply provide a burst of nutritional value improving the immediate health or well being of the consumer and consequently improving sexual performance and libido.

Second: This group includes the purported aphrodisiac have more specific physiological affects but are not psychologically active. They may affect blood flow; increase duration of sexual activity by numbing the genital area.

Third: The third group of aphrodisiac is made up compounds that are psychopharmacological, i.e., they actually cross the blood brain barriers and stimulates some area of sexual arousal. This category includes a wide range of neurotransmitters, hormones, pheromones and drugs that interfere with the normal function of these molecules. This category is most difficult to study because knowledge of both sexual arousal and the mechanisms of the psychoactive properties of drugs are limited. Only the most general information about sexual arousal and the brain is understood7.

PHARMACOLOGICALLY ACTIVE APHRODISIAC INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS IN EXPERIMENTAL MODELS

In India with the advent of the ayurvedists some of the medicinal plants have proven to possess a traditional as well as scientifically proven aphrodisiac that can enhance passion, increase libido, enhance sexual performance and help to increase the intensity of lovemaking. Various Indian medicinal plants used to treat Sexual dysfunction as well as ones that give sexual strength, stamina, increased libido, vitality and sexual energy. A brief report of plants has been tested for aphrodisiac potential are documented (Table 1).

Abelmoschus manihot (L.): Abelmoschus manihot (L.) commonly reffered to as “Junglee bhindi”. Two doses i.e., 100 and 200 mg kg-1 b.wt. of ethanolic extract administered to swiss albino mice, showed pronounced anabolic and spermatogenic effect in animals of respective groups. There was a remarkable increased in sperm count and penile erection index and also improved sexual behavior of male mice by increased mount and intromission frequency. Further, it was noticed that a 200 mg kg-1 b.wt. dose of Abelmoschus manihot, the performance rate enhances without any side effect8.

Anacyclus pyrethrum: Anacyclus pyrethrum DC belongs to family Compositae. Aqueous extract of the roots was studied for its effect on sexual behavior, spermatogenesis and sperm count. Fructose levels in seminal vesicles of albino rats were also recorded. Two doses i.e., 50 and 100 mg kg-1 of aqueous extract on administration in albino rats showed pronounced anabolic and spermatogenic effect in animals of respective groups. The sperm count and fructose levels in seminal vesicle were markedly increased. Improvement in sexual behavior of male rats was characterized by increased mount and intromission frequency and reduced mount and intromission latency9.

Asparagus racemosus willd: Asparagus racemosus willd belongs to family Liliaceae. Hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extracts at higher concentration (400 mg kg-1 b.wt.) showed significant aphrodisiac activity on male wistar albino rats as evidenced by an increase in number of mounts and mating performance. On the other hand, hydro-alcoholic extract at lower dose (200 mg kg-1 b.wt.) and aqueous extract (400 mg kg-1 b.wt.) showed moderate aphrodisiac property.

Asparagus racemosus is commonly known as Shatavari. Milk and aqueous decoction of roots of A. racemosus, were studied for aphrodisiac activity in male albino rats and compared with untreated control group animals. The rats were evaluated for effect of treatments on anabolic effect. Six measures of sexual behavior were evaluated. The 200 mg kg-1 b.wt. of milk decoction showed a significant difference in the sexual behavior of animals as reflected by reduction of mount latency, ejaculation latency, post ejaculatory latency, intromission latency and an increase of mount frequency. Penile erection (indicated by Penile Erection Index) was also considerably enhanced. Reduced hesitation time (an indicator of attraction towards female in treated rats) also indicated an improvement in sexual behavior of extract treated animals. The observed effects appear to be attributable to the testosterone-like effects of the milk decoction of A. racemosus. Nitric oxide based intervention may also be involved as observable from the improved penile erection11.

Asteracanta longifolia: Asteracanta longifolia belongs to family Acanthaceae. Ethanolic extract of seeds of A. longifolia at 100, 150 and 200 mg kg-1, p.o. in male rats for a period of 28 days. Significantly increase in the sexual behavior such as mating performance and MF. A Significant increase in the sperm count as well as fructose levels of seminal vesicles was noted12.

Blepharis edulis Linn.: Blepharis edulis Linn. belongs to family Acanthaceae. Effect of etanolic extract of Seeds of B. edulis Linn. at 100, 250 and 500 mg kg-1 p.o. for 7 days on mice significantly increase MF,IF, IL, erections as well as aggregate of penile reflexes and caused significant reduction in ML and PEI. Hormonal parameter like testosterone was evaluated. The most appreciable effect of the extract was observed at the dose of 500 mg kg-1 13.

Butea frondonsa koen: Butea frondonsa Koen belongs to family Papillionaceae. Aphrodisiac study was performed on bark of B. frondonsa Koen. The extract (400 mg kg-1 b.wt. day-1) was administered orally by gavage for 28 days. The extract reduced significantly ML, IL, EL and PEI. The extract also increased significantly MF, IF and EF.These effects were observed in sexually active and inactive male rats4.

Chenopodium album: Chenopodium album belongs to family Chenopadiaceae. Ethanolic extract C. album at 100, 250 and 500 mg kg-1, p.o. in male albino mice showed significant increase in the MF, IF, IL, erection as well as aggregate of penile reflexes and caused in Significant reduction in the ML and post ejaculatory interval. More over 500 mg kg-1, p.o. was found to be most active14.

Chlorophytum borivilianum: Chlorophytum borivilianum belongs to family Liliaceae. Lyophilized aqueous extracts of C. borivilianum at 200 mg kg-1, p.o. showed significant enhancement of body weight and reproductive organs, penile erection, MF, whereas, significant variation in reduction of ML, EL,IL, reduced hesitation time indicates an improvement in sexual behavior of extract treated animals15.

Crossandra infundibuliformis Linn.: Crossandra infundibuliformis Linn. belongs to family Acanthaceae. Effect of petroleum ether extract of C. infundibuliformis Linn. on male rat exhibited significant aphrodisiac behavior at 200 and 400 mg kg-1 p.o. Significantly increase MF, IF and ejaculatory latency and reduced ML and IL and Significantly increase in serum testosterone16.

Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.: Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. belongs to family Amaryllidaceae. Ethanoilc extract of rhizomes of C. orchioides Gaertn. at 100 mg kg-1, p.o. in rats was found to be change significantly the sexual behavior such as penile erection, mating performance, MF, ML and increase of penile erection index and weight of reproductive organs4,3,9.

Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D.Don): Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D.Don) belongs to family Orchidaceae. Aqueous extract of Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D.Don) Causes significant anabolic effect. Penile erection index (PEI) was also considerably enhanced and significantly reduce mount latency in extract treated group17.

Durio zibenthinus Linn.: Aphrodisiac activity of petroleum ether extract and isolated compound 3-β-hydroxyl-21-normethyl-19-vinylidenylursane of D. zibenthinus Linn. were screened for different dose level and it was found that 400 mg kg-1 p.o. was most active in the mice and have better aphrodisiac activity than all other treated dose18.

Glycyrrhiza glabra: Glycyrrhiza glabra belongs to family Leguminocae. In the present study aphrodisiac activity of aqueous extract of G. glabra (Leguminocae) roots and rhizomes was investigated. The extract (150 and 300 mg kg-1 b.wt. day-1) was administered orally by gavage for 28 days. Mount Latency (ML), Intromission Latency (IL), mounting Frequency (MF), Intromission Frequency (IF), weight of animals (g) were the parameters observed before and during the sexual behavior study at day 0, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28. The extract reduced significantly ML and IL. The extract also increased significantly MF and IF. These effects were observed in sexually active male rats19.

Hybanthus enneaspermus (L.) F. muell: Orally administered ethanol (300 mg kg-1) and aqueous (300 mg kg-1) extracts of H. enneaspermus (L.) F. muell were evaluated for its aphrodisiac activity in sexually inactive male rats both in a single dose regimen and in a chronic regimen as a daily dose for 28 days. Mount and intromission latency and number of mounts, intromissions and ejaculations were the parameters used for assessing sexual arousal and performance. Following a single dose administration, the aqueous extract produced a decrease in the mounting and intromission latency, with an increase in the ejaculatory and intromission frequency. In the chronic model, both the alcohol and aqueous extracts increased the number of mounts, ejaculations and intromissions with decrease in the mounting and intromission latency. Treatment with aqueous extract also elevated the testosterone levels in sexually inactive male rats20.

Leptadenia reticulate Linn.: Leptadenia reticulate Linn. belongs to family Asclpiadaceae. Effect of chloroform extract of L. reticulate Linn. at 50, 100, 250 mg kg-1, p.o. on male rats for a period of 28 days. Significantly increase in mount, intromission interval, number of ejaculations and decreased latency of first mount as well as the increase in post ejaculation time. Significant weight gain in testis, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, vasdeferences, epididymis21.

Mimusa pudica Linn.: Mimusa pudica Linn. belongs to family Mimosae. Effect of etanolic extract of roots of M. pudica Linn. at 100, 250 and 500 mg kg-1 p.o. for 7 days on mice significantly increase MF, IF, IL, erections as well as aggregate of penile reflexes and caused significant reduction in ML and PEI. Hormonal parameter like testosterone was evaluated. The most appreciable effect of the extract was observed at the dose of 500 mg kg-1 22.

Mucuna pruriens Linn.: Mucuna pruriens Linn. belongs to family Papilionaceae. Ethanolic extract of M. pruriens Linn. showed significant increase in the MF, IF, EL and decrease the Mount Latency, IL, PEI and Intromission interval at 150, 200,250 mg kg-1, p.o. dose in wistar albino rats23.

Myristica fragrans Houtt.: Myristica fragrans Houtt. belongs to family Myristicaceae. Effect of 50 % etanolic extract of dry kernel of M. fragrans Houtt. at 100, 250 and 500 mg kg-1 p.o. for 7 days on male rat significantly increase MF,IF, IL, erections as well as aggregate of penile reflexes and caused significant reduction in ML and PEI24.

Nymphaea stellata Willd.: Nymphaea stellata Willd. belongs to family Nymphaeceae. The extract (150, 250 and 500 mg kg-1) was administered orally once a day for 7 days. Mating behaviour test, orientational activities, test for libido and test for potency were assessed in male rats.

There was an overall increase in sexual behaviour as evidenced by an increase in MF (Mounting Frequency), IF (Intromission Frequency), EL (Ejaculatory Latency) and a decrease in ML (Mounting Latency), IL (Intromission Latency) and PEI (Post Ejaculatory Interval). Increase in orientational activities, weight of primary and accessory sex organs, libido and potency were also observed. These results were statistically significant. The study showed that the extract certainly has aphrodisiac activity particularly at the dose level 500 mg kg-1 25.

Ocimum gratissimum: Ocimum gratissimum belongs to family Lamiaceae. Effect of etanolic extract of leaves of O. gratissimum at 100, 250 and 500 mg kg-1 p.o. for 7 days on mice significantly increase MF, IF, IL, erections as well as aggregate of penile reflexes and caused significant reduction in ML and PEI. A dose of 500 mg kg-1 showed maximum effect without any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effect26.

Paederia foetida Linn.: Paederia foetida Linn. belongs to family Rubiaceae. Ethanolic extract of the leaves (50, 100 and 200 mg kg-1 b.wt.) was studied for their effect on body and secondary sexual organ weight, sexual behavior, spermatogenesis and serum testosterone level in male albino rats. Oral administration of the extract in albino rats showed pronounced anabolic and spermatogenic effects in animals in the treated groups. The extract significantly increased both mount and intromission frequency27.

Passiflora incarnate Linn.: Passiflora incarnate Linn. belong to family passifloraceae. Effect of methanolic extract of P. incarnate Linn. on male mice exhibited significant aphrodisiac behavior at 75, 100 and 150 mg kg-1, p.o.among these, the highest activity was observed with the 100mg kg-1 p.o dose. When the mounting were calculated about 95 min after the administration of test extract28.

Pedalium murex Linn.: Pedalium murex Linn. belongs to family pedaliaceae. Fruits and roots of P. murex Linn. were reported for its aphrodisiac activity. Ethanolic extract of P. murex fruits possesses aphrodisiac property. Petroleum ether extracts of P. murex roots were possesses aphrodisiac property.

Petroleum ether extract of P. murex, family Pedaliaceae. Doses of 200 and 400 mg kg-1 of PEPM showed a significant increase in mating and mounting behaviour. The effect on fertility factors such as total body weight, percentage of pregnancy, litter size were also significantly increased in comparison with the ethanol-treated group. Significant increases in sperm motility and count were observed in PEPM treated groups in a dose-dependent manner as compared with the ethanol-treated group. Similarly, reductions in the percentage of abnormal sperm were noted in animals treated with PEPM 400 mg kg-1. The effects of PEPM on total protein, total cholesterol and testosterone were satisfactory, the levels being increased significantly for protein, cholesterol and testosterone by 400 mg kg-1 PEPM. Microtome sections of the testes of animals treated with 400 mg kg-1 PEPM exhibited restoration and recovery of germinal cells and the luminal spermatozoa and were comparable with the control group animals1,29.

Piper guineense: Piper guineense belongs to family Piperaceae. Aqueous extract of dry fruits of P. guineense two doses (122.5 and 245 mg kg-1 p.o. for 8 days and 122.5 mg kg-1 p.o. for 55 days). Significant increase in the level of testosterone in the serum and testes, Cholesterol in testes, α-glucosidase in the epididymis in the seminal vesicles after 8 days of treatment, while 55 day treatment the levels of Cholesterol in the testes increases by 75 %. Aqueous extract of Piper guineense at both doses had a positive effect on the male reproductive function30.

Polygonatum verticillatum: Polygonatum verticillatum is belongs to family Liliaceae. Aqueous extract of P. verticillatum leaf dose (500 mg kg-1 b.wt. day-1) and L-dopa (100 mg kg-1 b.wt. day-1) were administered orally by gavages for 28 days. Mount Latency (ML), Intromission Latency (IL), Ejaculation Latency (EL), Mounting Frequency (MF), Intromission Frequency (IF), Ejaculation Frequency (EF) and Post Ejaculatory Interval (PEI) were the parameters observed before and during the sexual behavior study at day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Polygonatum verticillatum leaf aqueous extract reduced significantly ML, IL, EL and PEI. The extract also increased significantly MF, IF and EF31.

Spilanthes acmella (L.) Murr.: Spilanthes acmella (L.) Murr. belongs to family Asteraceae. Ethanolic extracts of the S. acmella flower and its effect on general mating pattern, penile erection and serum hormone levels of normal male wistar albino rats were investigated and compared with sildenafil citrate. The animals were evaluated on various parameters of sexual behavior, anabolic effects, testosterone level and in vitro sperm counts. The aphrodisiac potential of an ethanolic S. acmella extract was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo32.

Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. and Perry: Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. and Perry belongs to family Myrtaceae. Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. and Perry. (clove) in three doses (15, 30 and 60 mg kg-1 b.wt. p.o.) in male mice significantly increase MF,IF, IL, erections as well as aggregate of penile reflexes. Hexane extract of S. aromaticum (L.) flower bud as an aphrodisiac33.

Tinospora cordifolia: Tinospora cordifolia belongs to family Menispermaceae. In this study, the total extracts were tested for their constituents and tested for aphrodisiac activity in experimental rats. Hydroalcoholic extract of Tinospora cordifolia stem at higher concentration (400 mg kg-1 b.wt.) showed significant aphrodisiac activity on male wistar albino rats as evidenced by an increase in number of mounts and mating performance. On the other hand hydroalcoholic extract at lower dose (200 mg kg-1 b.wt.) and aqueous extract (400 mg kg-1 b.wt.) showed moderate aphrodisiac property11.

Tribulus terrestris Linn. Tribulus terrestris Linn. is a flowering plant belongs to the family of zygophyllaceae It is commonly known as “Ghokhru”. The lyophilized powder of the dried fruits of T. terrestris was studied for sexual behavior effects of acute and subchronic administration in male albino rats and comparison has been made with standard sexual stimulant drug, sildenafil citrate. The animals were evaluated on various parameters of sexual behavior, anabolic effects, testosterone level and in vitro sperm counts. Oral administration of 100 mg kg-1 of test drug has proven anabolic effect as evidenced by body weight gain in the body and reproductive organs. Improvement in sexual behavior of male rats was characterized by increased amount and intromission frequency. Penile erection Index (PEI) was also considerably enhanced without any noticeable toxicity and the testosterone level and sperm count also significantly increased and the results are comparable to that of standard drug, sildenafil citrate34.

Trichopus zeylanicus Gaerton.: Trichopus zeylanicus Gaerton. belongs to family Trichopodaceae. Administration of ethanolic extract of T. zeylanicus Gaerton. leaves to male mice increased the number of mounts and mating performance. The pups fathered by the extract treated mice were normal with regard to fetal growth, litter size and sex ratio. Although, oral administration of a single dose (200 mg kg-1 p.o.) was effective, daily administration of the extract were for 6 day was more effective. The aqueous as well as n-Hexane extracts of the leaves were found to be inactive35.

Turnera aphrodisiaca ward: Turnera aphrodisiaca ward belongs to family Turneraceae. Chloroform extract exhibited significant activity at a dose of 200 mg kg-1, p.o. while methanol extract showed aphrodisiac activity at a lower dose, i.e., (50 mg kg-1 p.o.). Volatile oil of T. aphrodisiaca was found to be devoid of aphrodisiac activity. Qualitative phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids in chloroform and methanol extracts. Therefore, the alkaloidal fraction was isolated from aerial parts of T. aphrodisiaca and tested for aphrodisiac activity at dose levels of 25, 50, 75, or 100 mg kg-1 p.o.36.

Vanda tessellate (ROXB.) HOOK.EX DON: Vanda tessellate (ROXB.) belongs to family Orchidaceae. Alcholic extract of flowers of V. tessellata at doses of 50 and 200 mg kg-1, p.o. were found to be increase mating performance and tend to increase the male/female ratio resulting offspring. The alcohol extract was devoid of any conspicuous general toxicity37.

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OTHER HERBAL PLANTS WITH APHRODISIAC POTENTIAL

Other herbal plants with aphrodisiac activity are Artocarpus heterophyllus Linn., Bombax ceiba Linn., Boesenbergia rotunda L., Amaranthus spinosus L., Bryonia laciniosa Linn., Bussea occidentalis, Carica papaya L., Cannabis indica L., Celastrus paniculatus Willd., Dalbergia sissoo Roxb., Daucus carota L., Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Eriodendron Anfractuosum DC., Ficus arnottiana Miq., Flueggea virosa Roxb., Garcinia afzelii Engl., Gmelina arborea Roxb., Hibiscus rosa-sinesis, Hygrophila auriculata Schum., Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq., Jatropha curcas L., Linum usitatissimum L., Mallotus philippensis Lam., Mangifera indica L., Mezoneuron benthamianum., Morinda lucida., Orchis latifolia Linn., Papaver somniferum L., Punica granatum L., Rauvolfia vomitoria., Saccharum spontaneum Linn., Santalum album Linn., Scindapsus officinalis Schtt., Sida cordifolia Linn., Solanum nigrum Linn., Tamarindus indica L., Terminalia arjuna Roxb., Turrea heterophylla Sm., Valeriana jatamansi Wall., Wrightia tinctoria (Roxb.), Zingiber officinale 38.

CONCLUSION

In India, various types of traditional herbal medicines are used to improve the general well-being and, consequently, the male sexual satisfaction. These traditional herbal remedies are accepted among men and they provide them with an easy alternative to legitimize medical treatment for their sexual problem. In the males study, about 50% of the respondents claimed that the reasons for not using phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) were because it was risky and they were looking for natural therapies. Other important characteristics of the SD therapies that are sought by sufferers include safety, containing natural aphrodisiac agent.

The herbal drugs discussed in review have shown potent aphrodisiac activity. The synthetic formulation available in market, though they are showing excellent clinical and pharmacological activity in sexual dysfunction but they have significant adverse effect hence herbal drugs are preferred over synthetic drug to avoid serious side effects and adverse effects. One has to be extremely cautious about the use of traditional herbal medicines due to the fact that in India, quality control regulations are non-existent or they are too flexible. Further investigation on the plants can increase the isolation of the newer molecules which will be helpful for the treatment of Sexual dysfunction.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors are thankful to the authorities of Sunrise University, Alwar (Rajasthan) for providing support to the study and other necessary facility like internet surfing, library and other technical support to write a review article.

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