Asian Science Citation Index is committed to provide an authoritative, trusted and significant information by the coverage of the most important and influential journals to meet the needs of the global scientific community.  
ASCI Database
308-Lasani Town,
Sargodha Road,
Faisalabad, Pakistan
Fax: +92-41-8815544
Contact Via Web
Suggest a Journal
Pharmacologia
Year: 2012  |  Volume: 3  |  Issue: 12  |  Page No.: 700 - 706

Anthelmintics Against Gastrointestinal Nematodiasis in Black Bengal Goat Inducing Live Weight and Hematological Indices

M.R. Akanda, F.M.A. Hossain, F.A. Ashad, M.G. Kabir and M.M.R. Howlader    

Abstract: Background: Black Bengal goat is very popular in Bangladesh and parasitism is considered as most vital limitation of livestock production. Twenty black Bengal goats of 12-13 month old irrespective of sex infested with gastrointestinal nematodes were selected for this experiment and randomly divided into four equal groups (group A, B, C and D) where each group consisted of 5 goats and goats of group D were kept as control group. Objective: The present investigation was aimed to evaluate the comparative efficacy of modern anthelmintics like albendazole (group A), ivermectin (group B) and fenbendazole (group C) against gastrointestinal nematodiasis in goats regarding their effects on body weight and haematological indices. Results: After treatment with albendazole, ivermectin and fenbendazole, Total Erythrocyte Count (TEC), Hemoglobin (Hb) content and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) were increased significantly (p>0.05 and p<0.01) in goats but decreased significantly (p<0.01) in untreated control goats. Unlikely, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) were increased significantly (p>0.05) in untreated control group and decreased in treated group. On the other hand, Total Leukocyte Count (TLC) was decreased in all treated goat and body weight was increased significantly (p<0.01). In this experiments, the live weight gain of goats in group A, B and C recorded at ‘0’ days and at 28 days and the percentage of improvement of body weight gain in kilogram were 6.81, 5.76 and 10.97%, respectively and in control group it was reduced by 0.44%. So, it can be concluded that albendazole, ivermectin and fenbendazole found as effective against gastrointestinal (GI) nematodiasis and the body weight increased significantly (p<0.01) as well.

Jabbar and Green, 1983), helminthiasis especially GI nematodiasis overwhelming a severe havoc on health and production (Rehman et al., 2009) throughout the world due to impacts on economy also (Silvestre et al., 2000). The main GI nematodes playing lower productivity Black Bengal goats typically take account of Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum, Ostertagia, Chabertia, Nematodirus, Trichuris, Moniezia and Fasciola (Husnain and Usmani, 2006).

Gastrointestinal nematodes pretense serious loss to goat health and production in tropical areas (Perry et al., 2002; Sahlu et al., 2009) with a high rate of anthelmintic resistance prevalence (Howell et al., 2008; Kaplan et al., 2004). The use of sustainable, integrated parasite control systems, using scientifically proven non-chemical methods and limited use of drugs is being considered to ensure animal health and food safety (Waller, 2006). We can prevent and control the parasitic diseases by using a routine prophylactic anthelmintics measurement.

The anthelmintic activities and therapy of albendazole, ivermectin and fenbendazole have been studied (Dale and Haylett, 2004). Albendazole act by inhibiting tubulin polymerization, ivermectin produces flacid paralysis of parasites by acting as an agonist of the neurotransmitter Gamma Amino Butyric Acid (GABA), thereby disrupting GABA-mediated Central Nervous System (CNS) neurosynaptic transmission (Dacasto and Cocuzza, 1995), whereas oxyclozanide lowers the essential ATP through uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation (Einsteinm et al., 1994). The present investigation was aimed to evaluate the comparative efficacy of modern anthelmintics albendazole, ivermectin and fenbendazole against gastrointestinal nematodiasis in goats irrespective to the species involved and their effects on body weight of goats and haematological parameters like Total Erythrocyte Count (TEC), Total Leucocyte Count (TLC), Hemoglobin % (Hb%), Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate ( ESR ) were also included in this investigation.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Study placement and duration: The present study was undertaken from June 2010 to mid August of 2010 to comparing the potency of albendazole, ivermectin and fenbendazole against gastrointestinal (GI) nematode parasites in goats in Government Goat Development Farm, Sylhet. The research work was performed in the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet, Bangladesh.

Allocation of trail: Twenty goats 12-13 month old infested with gastrointestinal nematodes were selected for this experiment and randomly divided into four equal groups (group A, B, C and D) where each group consisted of 5 goats. Goats of group D were kept as infested control group. Remaining groups (A, B and C) of goats were treated with albendazole (Endokil® ACI Ltd.), at 7.5 mg kg-1 b.wt., ivermectin (Vermic® Techno Drugs Ltd.) at 0.2 mg kg-1 (1 mL 50 kg-1) b.wt., fenbendazole (Peraclear® Techno Drugs Ltd.) at 7.5 mg kg-1 b.wt. Each goat was tagged with mark while selected and then reared in intensive husbandry condition with food and water ad libitum. In this study, the effects of three anthelmintics albendazole, ivermectin and fenbendazole on body weight of goats were taken at ‘0’ day and 28th day.

EPG counting: Weekly EPG count was also done on day 7, 14, 21 and 28 post treatments by McMaster egg counting technique.

Hematological studies: Using sterile syringe and needle maintaining aseptic condition, 5 mL of blood sample was collected from Jugular vein of each goat by and kept in vials containing anticoagulant (sodium-EDTA) and this was done on day of 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 during experimental period. Hematological studies performed following the methods described by Coffin (1961) for total erythrocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation Rate, Hemoglobin % and by Lamberg and Rothstein (1977) for total leucocyte count and packed cell volume.

Statistical analysis: Finally, linear correlation was used to analyze differences between body condition scores and EPG counts and EPG of different body scores were analyzed by pair-wise mean comparisons using SPSS v.15 for Windows (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) to find out the level of significance at 5 and 1% level.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Effects of albendazole, ivermectin and fenbendazole on egg per gram (EPG) in GI nematodiasis in goats. The efficacy of albendazole, ivermectin and fenbendazole based on fecal egg counts reduction on naturally infested goats are presented in Table 1. The goats in group A were treated with tablet albendazole (Endokil®) at the dose rate of 7.5 mg kg-1 b.wt. orally. The pre-treatment mean EPG count was 315.60±16.13 and the post-treatment mean EPG count values at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days were 43.80±2.13, 53.40±2.01, 45.20±2.63 and 41.80±0.86, respectively and the rate of reductions were significantly increased to the extent of 86.12, 83.08, 85.68 and 86.76%, respectively. This result in conformity with the earlier workers, Ram et al. (2007) studied the comparative efficacy of albendazole, albendazole plus rafoxanide combination, ivermectin and doramectin. The study was conducted in Pashmina goats infested with Haemonchus spp. and maintained at high altitude (>2350 m above sea level). Guha et al. (1986) stated that albendazole at 7.5 mg kg-1 b.wt. was 100% effective against gastrointestinal nematodiasis in naturally infested goats.

The goats in group B were treated with ivermectin (Vermic®), injectable formulation at the dose rate of 2 mg kg-1 b.wt. subcutaneously. The pre-treatment mean EPG counts was 287.20±6.54 and the post-treatment mean EPG count values at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days were 70.80±0.86, 83.80±2.75, 65.20±1.32 and 43.60±2.62, respectively and the rate of reductions were significantly increased to the extent of 75.35, 70.82, 77.30 and 84.82%, respectively.

Table 1: Effects of albendazole, ivermectin and fenbendazole on EPG in GI nematodiasis
In a column values with same letter do not differ significantly at p>0.05, whereas values with dissimilar letter differ significantly at p<0.05 (as per DMRT)

In conformity to the present findings, Islam et al. (2003), Tada et al. (1992) and Shastri et al. (1989) observed similar results in goat. Likewise, Amin et al. (2005), Hosseini et al. (2000) and Praslicka et al. (1995) reported similar findings in sheep. Similar results have also been stated by some researchers, Islam et al. (1999) in cattle, Stevenson et al. (2002) in cattle and sheep and Islam et al. (2003) in buffaloes. Yadav et al. (1996) observed 99-100% efficacy of ivermectin against gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep and goat at of 0.2 mg kg-1 b.wt. ivermectin is very modern anthelmintics in this country, it seems that a few work was carried out previously to determine the efficacy of this anthelmintics in Bangladesh. This study revealed that ivermectin is a most effective anthelmintics against gastrointestinal nematodiasis.

The goats in group C were treated with tablet fenbendazole (Peraclear®) at the dose rate of 7.5 mg kg-1 b.wt. orally. The pre-treatment mean EPG counts was 311.40±6.16 and the post-treatment mean EPG count values at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days were 82.20±1.20, 65.60±2.42, 47.40±4.27 and 23.40±1.33, respectively and the rate of reductions were significantly increased to the extent of 73.60, 78.93, 84.78 and 92.49%, respectively. The efficacy of fenbendazole was 92.49%. This result is more or less similar by earlier reported Ram et al. (2007), Jagannath et al. (1988), Maqbood et al. (1996). However, some workers reported variable efficacy i.e., 99.68-99.91% efficacy; Haq et al. (1984) reported that fenbendazole at the dose rate of 5 mg kg-1 b.wt. was 100% effective in naturally infested with various gastrointestinal nematodes.

Rahmatulla et al. (1985) reported that fenbendazole at the dose rate of 5 mg kg-1 b.wt. on goats was 100% effective after 5 days of treatment. Chand-Thakuri et al. (1994) found that fenbendazole at the dose rate of 10 mg kg-1 b.wt. was 100, 100 and 33% effective against trichostrongylus, strongyloides and trichuris, respectively.

In untreated naturally parasitized control Group D the mean EPG count value was 296.00±4.87 at `0’ day and mean egg count values at 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th days were 298.20±1.28, 301.00±1.52, 303.20±2.42 and 305.40±1.29 the rate of infestation were increased 0.74, 1.69, 2.43 and 3.18%, respectively.

Effect of albendazole, ivermectin and fenbendazole on haematological parameters
Total erythrocytes count (TEC): The effects of three anthelmintics albendazole, ivermectin and fenbendazole on TEC of goats for 28 days at 7 days interval was shown in Table 2. The pre-treatment mean values of erythrocyte (million/cu. mm of blood) were 8.00±0.05, 8.09±0.05 and 8.01±0.10 in the goats of group A, B and C, respectively. On the 28th day of the post-treatment, the mean values of TEC were increased up to 8.14±0.05, 8.13±0.05 and 8.19±0.04 in the goats of group A, B and C, respectively. The mean value of TEC in control group (group D) was 7.95±0.08 but the mean values of TEC started to decrease on 28 day and recorded as 7.30±0.11. The mean value of TEC was significantly decreased, (p<0.05 and p<0.01) at 14 and 28 day of the treatment with anthelmintics. These results are more or less similar with the earlier workers, Islam et al. (2003), Islam et al. (1999), Windon (1990), Richard et al. (1990) and Preston and Allonby (1978) in goat, Yousif et al. (1988), Gray et al. (1987) and Preston and Allonby (1978) in sheep, Islam et al. (1999) in cattle and Islam et al. (2003) in buffaloes. These results are more or less similar with the findings of earlier workers, like Nettleton and Beckett (1976).

Total leucocyte count (TLC): The effects of albendazole, ivermectin and fenbendazole on TLC of goats for 28 days at 7 days interval was shown in Table 3. The pre-treatment mean values of TLC were 7.97±0.04, 7.97±0.06 and 8.23±0.05 in the goats of group A, B and C, respectively. On the 28th day of the post-treatment, the mean values of TLC were decreased to 7.96±0.05, 7.92±0.04 and 8.06±0.04 in the goats of group A, B and C, respectively. The mean value of TLC in group D (control group) was 8.08±0.03 but the mean values of TLC gradually increased to 8.18±0.04 on 28th day.

Table 2: Effects of albendazole, ivermectin and fenbendazole on TEC
In a column values with same letter do not differ significantly at p>0.05, whereas values with dissimilar letter differ significantly at p<0.05 (as per DMRT)

Table 3: Effects of albendazole, ivermectin and fenbendazole on TLC
In a column values with same letter do not differ significantly at p>0.05, whereas values with dissimilar letter differ significantly at p<0.05 (as per DMRT)

Table 4: Effects of albendazole, ivermectin and fenbendazole on Hb %
In a column values with same letter do not differ significantly at p>0.05, whereas values with dissimilar letter differ significantly at p<0.05 (as per DMRT)

Table 5: Effects of albendazole, ivermectin and fenbendazole on ESR (mm/1st h)
All the values in the table are non significant level at p>0.05

The TLC value increased significantly (p<0.01) from 14 day and 28th day of anthelmintic treatment. The present findings were in agreement of the works with Richard et al. (1990), Windon (1990) and Preston and Allonby (1978) in goat, Yousif et al. (1988), Preston and Allonby (1978), Gray et al. (1987) in sheep.

Haemoglobin (Hb) concentration: The pre treatment mean values of haemoglobin (g%) were 7.58±0.22, 7.47±0.21 and 7.05±0.10 in the goats of group A, B and C, respectively. On the 28 day, the post-treatment mean values of haemoglobin (g%) were increased up to 8.70±0.25, 8.76±0.19 and 8.93±0.36 in the goats of group A, B and C, respectively. The mean value of haemoglobin content of group D (control group) on day `0’ was 7.14±0.12 which increased to 7.47±0.21 on the 28 day. The haemoglobin value increased significantly (p>0.05 and p<0.01) from 14 day and 28 day of anthelmintic treatment (Table 4). Similar results have also been stated due to treatment by some researchers Mukherjee (1992), Islam et al. (2003), Islam et al. (1999) and Yousif et al. (1988).

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR): Initial control values of ESR (mm h-1) were 0.13±0.02, 0.10±0.01 and 0.10±0.01 in the goats in group A, B and C, respectively. On the 28 day of the post-treatment, the mean values of ESR were 0, 0 and 0. Whereas the mean ESR values of group D (control group) was 0.12±0.01 but the mean values of ESR gradually increased to 1.12±0.04 on 28 day. The ESR significantly increased (p>0.05) from the 14 to 28 days of treatment (Table 5). This result is similar to the reports of Gillespie et al. (2010), Rehman et al. (2009) and Ram et al. (2007).

Packed cell volume (PCV): The pre-treatment mean values of PCV were 27.62±0.19, 27.68±0.10 and 27.83±0.62 in the goats of group A, B and C, respectively. On the 28 day of the post-treatment, the mean values of PCV were increased up to 29.41±0.09, 29.21±0.13 and 29.21±0.05 in the goats of group A, B and C, respectively. The mean value of PCV in group D (control group) was 27.88±0.27 but the mean values of PCV gradually decreased and recorded as 27.25±0.06 on 28 day. The Packed Cell Volume (PCV) value decreased significantly (p<0.05 and p<0.01) from 14 day and continued up to 28 day of treatment (Table 6).

Table 6: Effects of albendazole, ivermectin and fenbendazole on PCV (%) in goat
In a column values with same letter do not differ significantly at p>0.05, whereas values with dissimilar letter differ significantly at p<0.05 (as per DMRT)

Table 7:
Effects of albendazole, ivermectin and fenbendazole on body weight (kg) gain/loss in goat
In a column values with same letter do not differ significantly at p>0.05, whereas values with dissimilar letter differ significantly at p<0.05 (as per DMRT)

This result is more or less similar with the report of Nettleton and Beckett (1976) declined PCV value was observed in control group. Similar results have also been stated by the earlier workers Prodhan et al. (1991), Islam et al. (2003) and Tariq et al. (2010).

Effects of albendazole , ivermectin and fenbendazole on body weight: On day ‘0’ the mean initial body weight of goats in group A, B and C treated with albendazole, ivermectin and fenbendazole were 13.68±0.16, 13.74±0.14 and 13.64±0.09 kg and on the 28th day of post-treatment, the mean values of body weight were 14.68±0.14, 14.58±0.18 and 15.32±0.40, respectively (Table 7). The body weight was almost similar to their pre-treatment (‘0’ day) values. The result is in conformity with the earlier researchers. Guha et al. (1986) stated that Aldazole at 3.5 mg kg body weight was 100% effective against gastrointestinal nematodiasis in naturally infested goats. Pomroy et al. (1988) reported that Aldazole at either 3.8 mg kg-1 repeated after 24 h or as a single dose rate 7.6 mg kg-1 b.wt. was >99% effective in naturally infected Angora-X goats. Guha and Banerjee (1987) indicated that albendazole at the dose rate of 3.5 mg kg-1 b.wt. on goats showed 100% effective. Findings of the present study reasonably agreed with the findings of the above mentioned authors. The body weight gains in the vermic® treated goat are supported by previous reports (Pandit et al., 2009). The parasitic infestation might be responsible to arrest the growth. The body weight was increased might be due to removal of parasitic load might have had facilitate the weight regain through proper digestion, absorption and metabolism of feed nutrient in the parasite free gastrointestinal tract. Haq et al. (1984) reported that fenbendazole at the dose rate of 5 mg kg-1 b.wt. was 100% effective in naturally infected with various gastrointestinal nematodes. Rahmatulla et al. (1985) reported that fenbendazole at the dose rate of 5 mg kg-1 b.wt. on goats was 100% effective after 5 days of treatment. Chand-Thakuri et al. (1994) found that fenbendazole at the dose rate of 10 mg kg-1 b.wt. was 100, 100 and 33% effective against trichostrongylus, Strongyloides and Trichuris respectively. The findings of the present study are more or less similar to the earlier researchers.

The improvement percentage in animals of group A, B and C after 28th day was 6.81, 5.76 and 10.97%, respectively. In the control group (group D) body weight was reduces to the extent of 0.44% after 28th day. Some earlier workers found improvement in body weight after treatment (Pandit et al., 2009; Chand-Thakuri et al., 1994; Zajac et al., 1992; Rossanigo et al., 1993).

**ad1**

CONCLUSION

Albendazole, ivermectin and fenbendazole are effective for reduction of EPG of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes in goats. Among these three anthelmintics, fenbendazole is highly effective on EPG, TEC, Hb, ESR and PCV. The findings of the present study may assist the future researchers to explore the details pharmacokinetic and toxic effects for wide therapeutic uses for the treatment and control of parasitic infestation in goats as those were found more effective in live weight gain of goats comparing with non treated ones. Further studies are required to clarify the efficacy of the anthelmintics widely used in different agro-ecologies, animal species and livestock.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author is highly grateful to the personnel of Sylhet Govt. Goat Development Farm and Department of Physiology and Pharmacology for their valuable assist in conducting such survey.

" target="_blank">View Fulltext    |   Related Articles   |   Back
 
 
   
 
 
 
  Related Articles

 
 
 
 
Copyright   |   Desclaimer   |    Privacy Policy   |   Browsers   |   Accessibility