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Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Year: 2017  |  Volume: 12  |  Issue: 4  |  Page No.: 180 - 190

Assessment of Sub-chronic Effect of Two Artificial Food Additives on Selected Biochemical Parameters in Wistar Rats

G.C. Ikechukwu, S.I. Egba, R.C. Ibeh, E.G. Helal, E.U. Ejiofor and P.N. Okafor    

Abstract: Background and Objective: Amaranth dye and vanillin are food additives used in food, drugs and cosmetics. This study was designed to assess the sub-chronic effect of oral ingestion of these food additives on biochemical parameters. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into 7 groups (5 animals/cage) and fed standard diet with tap water ad libitum. The animals were treated with 4.7 mg kg–1 b.wt., amaranth dye, 47 mg kg–1 b.wt., amaranth dye, 12.5 mg kg–1 b.wt., vanillin, 125 mg kg–1 b.wt., vanillin, 2.35 mg kg–1 b.wt., amaranth+6.25 mg kg–1 b.wt., vanillin and then 23.5 mg kg–1 b.wt., amaranth+62.5 mg kg–1 b.wt., vanillin. Blood samples were collected at the end of the study period for biochemical analyses. Data analysis was carried out with SPSS using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Result: This study showed a significant (p<0.05) increase in alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in animals treated with amaranth dye. Serum urea and creatinine were significantly (p<0.05) elevated in animals treated with amaranth and vanillin. Significant (p<0.05) decrease in total protein and bilirubin was observed in animals treated with 4.7 mg kg–1 b.wt., of amaranth dye compared to the control group. This study showed significant (p<0.05) increase in glutathione and catalase in animals treated with high dose of the combination of amaranth and vanillin. Haematological assessment showed significant (p<0.05) elevation in haemoglobin, red blood cells and platelet count in animals treated with 4.7 mg kg–1 b.wt., of amaranth dye and also showed significant (p<0.05) increase in total white blood cells in groups administered vanillin and combination of amaranth and vanillin. Conclusion: Amaranth and vanillin can adversely affect organs as the liver and kidney and alter biochemical parameters.

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