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Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Year: 2012  |  Volume: 7  |  Issue: 6  |  Page No.: 274 - 287

The Potency of African Locust Bean Tree as Antimalarial

M.I. Builders, F. Tarfa and J.C. Aguiyi    

Abstract: This study was aimed to evaluate the antiplasmodial and antipyretic activities of the stem bark of African locust bean tree. The stem barks of African locust bean tree were extracted with methanol to obtain methanol extract. The antipyretic, acute toxicity, chemical constituents, antioxidant properties as well as the trace metallic content of this extract were determined. The extract was also subjected to column chromatography to obtain four fractions, these fractions were preliminary tested for antiplasmodial potency and methanol fraction which gave the most potent effect was fully evaluated. Flavonoids, tannins, terpenes, saponins, sterols, phenols and reducing sugars as well as Mg, Ni, Ca, Fe, Zn, Na, K and Cu were detected in the extract. It also showed a strong free radical scavenging activity on DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl). An oral median lethal dose (LD50) greater than 5 g kg-1 in mice was established for the crude extract and a significant dose dependent antipyretic and inhibition of parasitaemia in suppressive, curative and prophylactic tests. The antiplasmodial and antipyretic activities of the extract were tracked to the methanol fraction when evaluated with rodent malaria model Plasmodium berghei berghei and clinical isolates of Plasmodium falciparum. studies have established sufficient evidence collaborating the antimalarial activities of the stem bark of African locust bean tree, though the active principles are yet to be identified, further studies to elucidate these are ongoing.

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