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Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Year: 2011  |  Volume: 6  |  Issue: 3  |  Page No.: 312 - 320

Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil and Extracts of Gongronema latifolium Decne on Bacterial Isolates from Blood Stream of HIV Infected Patients

I.A. Adeleye, M.E. Omadime and F.V. Daniels    

Abstract: The essential oil as well as aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Gongronema latifolium leaves was evaluated for antimicrobial activity against bacteria isolated from blood streams of HIV patients in Lagos. Using agar diffusion method, the essential oil and the extracts showed moderate inhibitory activity against all the Stphylococcus sp., Escherichia coli, Shigella sp., Salmonella sp., Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Onchrobactrum anthropi and Candida albicans. The zones of inhibition values recorded were comparable to control antibiotic ampicillin but less than that of Ciprofloxacin and Chloramphenicol. The MIC for essential oil ranged between 5-40 μg mL-1, while MBC also ranged between 5-40 μg mL-1, the MIC and MBC for ethanol extract ranged between 3.125-12.5 mg mL-1 and 3.125-25.0 mg mL-1, while aqueous extract MIC range between 6.25-25.0 mg mL-1 and MBC also ranged between 6.25-25.0 mg mL-1, respectively. Extracts of Gongronema latifolium may be useful in ethnomedicine and in the treatment of blood stream infections in HIV patients. Essential oil from Gongronema latifolium leaves (Endl.) Decne was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS). The oil was dominated by linear aliphatic compounds (27.06%),unsaturated fatty acids which was characterized by high percentage of Phthalic acid (18.61%), oleic acids (5.2%), arachidic acid (2.34%) and fumaric acid (2.22%). Monoterpenes including camphor, β-Cymene and phytol.

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