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Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Year: 2007  |  Volume: 2  |  Issue: 2  |  Page No.: 168 - 175

Antibacterial, Phytochemical and Toxicity Studies of Pteridium aquilinum L. (Dennstaedtiaceae) in Rabbits

S.W. Hassan, R.A. Umar, Y.U. Dabai, A.A. Ebbo and U.Z. Faruk    

Abstract: The aqueous and organic solvent leaves extracts of Pteridium aquilinum were screened for antibacterial activity by hole-in-plate bioassay procedure. The effect of aqueous leaves extract of the plant on hepatorenal functions in rabbits was also studied. Hexane (HX) fraction at 10 to 120 mg mL-1 did not show activity against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, it was significantly (p<0.05) active against Staphylococcus aureus at 90 and 120 mg mL-1. The chloroform (CHL) extract fraction at concentrations of 50-120 mg mL-1 was significantly (p<0.05) active on all the bacterial species. Petroleum ether (PE) at 10-120 mg mL-1 showed significant (p<0.05) inhibition of S. aureus and E. coli. Aqueous (W) extract exhibited significant inhibitory activity at 50-120 mg mL-1 on S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Tannins, anthraquinone glycosides, cardiac glycosides, cyanogenic glycosides and volatile oils were detected in the extracts. The lethal dose (LD50) of the aqueous leaves extracts was found to be greater than 3000 mg kg-1 (p.o.) in rabbits. Non significant (p>0.05) and significant (p<0.05) changes in renal and liver indices, respectively were observed. Aqueous leaves extract of Pteridium aquilinum is toxic to the liver of rabbits only at 1500-3000 mg kg-1. These results have provided scientific evidence to justify the indigenous use of the plant against infectious diseases.

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