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Journal of Medical Sciences
Year: 2015  |  Volume: 15  |  Issue: 4  |  Page No.: 198 - 203

An Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Commiphora myrrha Nees (Engl.) Oleo-gum Resins from Saudi Arabia

Mohammed S. Alhussaini, A.M. Saadabi, Mohammed I. Alghonaim and Khalid Elfakki Ibrahim    

Abstract: The present work was aimed to evaluate oleo-gum resins aqueous, methanol and chloroform extracts of Commiphora myrrha for antimicrobial activity against four types of bacteria and twelve species and strains of fungi. All of the oleo-gum resin extracts irrespective of their types inhibited the growth of all microbes to varying degrees. Aqueous extract showed the least antibacterial and antifungal activity against all of the pathogens used especially with regard to gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (11 mm) and Escherichia coli (11 mm) in concentration of 100 mg mL–1 as compared to methanol or chloroform. Less or no activity was observed against Trichophyton concentricum (7.01 mm) and 4.01 mm inhibition zone for Candida rugosa in the same concentration used. The oleo-gum resins methanol extracts in different concentrations were significantly inhibitory to the growth of the different tested fungal dermatophytes. Reduction in mycelial weight of fungi was directly correlated with concentration of extract. The concentration of 200 mg mL–1 of myrrha was the most inhibitory against Epidermophyton floccosum with 2 g mycelial fresh weight while the less inhibition in the growth was obtained in Candida albicans and it was 6.61 g in the same extract concentration. The other used fungal or bacterial groups showed varying degrees of activity pending on the type of extract used. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of methanol and aqueous extracts of oleo-gum resins of myrrh showed that the highest values were obtained in methanol extract for Trichophyton concentricum and lowest MIC values for the same extract for the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. In the aqueous extract of myrrha the highest and lowest MIC values were found for Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Phytochemical analyses showed the presence of Sesquiterpenes (Isoprenoids i.e., Terpenoids) and Furanosesquiterpenes as major constituents of the oleo-gum resins of the plant. These results confirm the antibacterial and antifungal activity of gum resins and support the traditional use of the myrrh in therapy of bacterial infections.

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