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Journal of Medical Sciences

Year: 2013  |  Volume: 13  |  Issue: 8  |  Page No.: 824 - 828

Phytochemical Screening and Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Methanol Leaf Extract of Cissus polyantha

Y.M. Sani, A.M. Musa, A.H. Yaro, M.B. Sani, A. Amoley and M.G. Magaji


Cissus polyantha is used in African traditional medicine is the management of pain and inflammatory conditions. This study was therefore designed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanol extract of the leaf of Cissus polyantha, as well as to establish the class of phytochemical constituents present in the extract. The analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate tests in mice, while anti-inflammatory effect was investigated using carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema in rats. The results of the study showed that the extract significantly (50, 100, 200 mg kg-1) (p<0.001) and dose-dependently inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing. The extract at dose of 100 mg kg-1 increased the mean pain responses by 69.25% compared to control. At the end of third hour after carrageenan administration, the various doses of the extract offered 65.67, 70.15 and 67.16% inhibition of hind paw oedema, respectively. These effects were more remarkable than those produced by ketoprofen (63.8%). Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of steroids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and anthraquinones. The intraperitoneal mean lethal dose (LD50) of the extract in mice was estimated to be 774.6 mg kg-1. The findings of this study showed that the methanol leaf extract of Cissus polyantha contains some pharmacologically active principle(s) with analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities and lend credence of the ethnomedical use of the plant in the management of pain and inflammatory conditions.

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