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Journal of Medical Sciences
Year: 2008  |  Volume: 8  |  Issue: 8  |  Page No.: 707 - 714

Anaemia as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

Richard K.D. Ephraim, William K.B.A. Owiredu, Edwin F. Laing, Nafiu Amidu, Benjamin A. Eghan Jnr. and Linda Ahenkorah    

Abstract: This study evaluated whether anaemia poses a cardiovascular risk and whether the risk is modified by the presence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin concentration ≤11.0 for both males and females. The study population included 50 individuals with various chronic kidney diseases and/or with serum creatinine ≥200 μmol L-1. Another 55 subjects with similar age and sex distribution but without kidney pathology were studied as controls. Thirty percent of the subjects had CKD with an estimated GFR (eGFR) of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, estimated with the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation and were more likely to be anaemic and nondiabetic, higher mean values for serum creatinine (CRT), lower values for haemoglobin (HB), haematocrit (HCT) and red blood cells (RBC). CKD subjects with anaemia had a higher prevalence of several cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors; age, male sex, diabetes and hypertension and lower haematological parameters and estimated GFR. However, they had higher total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) level. In persons with CKD, anaemia poses a further cardiovascular risk as it increases some of the traditional cardiovascular risk factors.

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