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Journal of Medical Sciences
Year: 2004  |  Volume: 4  |  Issue: 3  |  Page No.: 179 - 182

Identification of Active Principles of M. balsamina (Balsam Apple) Leaf Extract

Y. Karumi, P.A. Onyeyili and V.O. Ogugbuaja    

Abstract: Momordica balsamina leaf was investigated for it`s chemical and traces elemental content. The air-dried samples were subjected to soxlet extraction using the solvents petroleum ether, methanol and water of different polarities. The extract fractions were concentrated and subjected to phytochemical screening to identify which component was high in concentration. The aqueous fraction, which is commonly used by traditional herbal healers, was further, subjected to column chromatographic separation and the recombined fraction of the column was further subjected to thin layer chromatography for identification. The air-dried sample was digested and analyzed for trace elements using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloid in high concentration followed by saponins, tannins and reducing compound, respectively. Sterols and triteperes were absent in all the solvents used. The analysis of the recombined column fraction of the aqueous extract indicated the presence of the tannins in two of ten fractions, alkaloids in four, saponins in two and the last fraction indicated the presence of reducing compounds. The thin layer chromatography identified the presence of alkaloids, saponins and tannins in the different fractions of the column. In conclusion therefore, M. balsamina as shown here do posses some active chemical constitutes like alkaloids, tannins, saponins, Fe, Zn and Mn.

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