Magnitude, Mechanism and Management of Pyrethroid Resistance in Helicoverpa
armigera Hubner in India
The magnitude of pyrethroid resistance was very high throughout India irrespective of the Helicoverpa armigera strains. The mechanism of pyrethroid resistance in H. armigera varies across the different regions of India, but PBO suppressible resistance (MFO mediated) appeared to be the major mechanism and the role played by carboxyl esterase was only marginal. Nerve insensitivity mechanism was observed in strains from areas where, the selection pressure from pyrethroids was intense over the past one decade. Since the pyrethroid resistance is more aggressive in India, several resistant management strategies were discussed in this review.
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